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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Sumo
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Small ubiquitin like modifier
Annotation Symbol
CG4494
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0264922
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Small ubiquitin like modifier (Sumo) encodes the only Drosophila SUMO family protein. It is required for embryonic patterning and mitosis. It may also have roles in wing patterning, Dpp signaling, and Ras/MAPK signaling. It localizes to the nucleus during interphase and to the kinetochores and midbodies during mitosis. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

smt3, dSmt3, l(2)04493, DmSmt3

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
2-23
RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:6966780..6967644
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (25 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables protein tag
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables protein tag
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000059492
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000059492
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (17 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (17 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:lwr; FB:FBgn0010602
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in lipid homeostasis
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
involved_in pupariation
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000059492
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
located_in midbody
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleolus
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000059492
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Small ubiquitin like modifier (Sumo) encodes the only Drosophila SUMO family protein. It is required for embryonic patterning and mitosis. It may also have roles in wing patterning, Dpp signaling, and Ras/MAPK signaling. It localizes to the nucleus during interphase and to the kinetochores and midbodies during mitosis. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
SUMO PROTEINS -
Sumo is a highly conserved, approximately 90 amino acid ubiquitin-like protein that is conjugated to substrates through a cascade of E1 activating enzymes, E2 conjugating enzymes, and E3 ligases. Conjugation of Sumo to target proteins (sumoylation) regulates their activity, stability, subcellular localization, or macromolecular interactions. Sumoylation is reversible and is used to regulate many processes with central roles in development including signal transduction, the epigenetic control of transcription, and the development and function of the innate immune system. (Adapted from PMID:28234446 and PMID:32188601.)
Pathway (FlyBase)
Positive Regulators of Toll-NF-κB Signaling Pathway -
In Drosophila, the canonical Toll signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a spatzle ligand to Toll (Tl) or a Toll-like receptor leading to the nuclear localization of the NF-κB (dl or Dif) transcription factor. Positive regulators of Toll-NF-κB Signaling lead to the increased nuclear accumulation of the NF-κB proteins and regulated expression of target genes. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
Positive Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
Positive regulators of hedgehog signaling up-regulate the pathway, resulting in the activation of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

a low molecular weight protein modifier that is vital for multicellular development - over 140 SUMO conjugates have been identified in the early embryo including Dorsal, Tramtrack, Vestigial, SoxNeuro, Medea, Mod(mdg4) and CP190 and the bi-functional tRNA charging enzyme glutamylprolyl-tRNA synthetase

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Sumo for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.49

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

Gene model reviewed during 6.02

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0079356
743
90
FBtr0346716
689
90
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

2.5, 1.5, 0.582 (longest cDNA)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0078984
10.1
90
5.12
FBpp0312327
10.1
90
5.12
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

90 aa isoforms: Sumo-PA, Sumo-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Sumo using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | ubiquitous

Comment: maternally contributed

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Maternal Sumo transcripts are distributed throughout the embryo until stage 10 and then decrease gradually. From stage 14 until the end of embryogenesis, transcripts are observed in the embryonic gonads in the pole cells. Sumo is also strongly expressed in the CNS. Within ovaries, transcripts are weakly detected in the germarium, are strongly expressed in stage S1-10 nurse cells and are weakly detected in the oocyte up until stage S10. Sumo transcripts are weakly expressed in spermatogonial cells at the tip region and remain detectable in the spermatocytes and spermatids.

The 1.5 and 2.5 kb Sumo transcripts are detected in embryos, larvae, and adults. The 1.5 kb transcript is most abundant in larvae.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
embryonic cortex
nucleus

Comment: maternally contributed

mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Sumo protein is expressed ubiquitously throughout embryonic and larval development. It accumulates at high levels in the nuclei of cells of the prothoracic gland.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
located_in midbody
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleolus
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Sumo in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 14 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 13 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Sumo
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Sumo
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 5 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
2  
12 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
2  
6 of 15
No
Yes
1  
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
13 of 13
Yes
Yes
11 of 13
No
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
13 of 12
Yes
Yes
11 of 12
No
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (6)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (8)
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
5 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190JPO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150GRU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0N8W )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0NI0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G10ZQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 2 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Positive Regulators of Toll-NF-κB Signaling Pathway -
    In Drosophila, the canonical Toll signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a spatzle ligand to Toll (Tl) or a Toll-like receptor leading to the nuclear localization of the NF-κB (dl or Dif) transcription factor. Positive regulators of Toll-NF-κB Signaling lead to the increased nuclear accumulation of the NF-κB proteins and regulated expression of target genes. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
    Positive Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
    Positive regulators of hedgehog signaling up-regulate the pathway, resulting in the activation of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
    Metabolic Pathways
    FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
    External Data
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-23
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    27C7-27C7
    Left limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0157097) Right limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0157097); Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}xl6k00230&P{EP}Hrb27CEP748 and P{PZ}smt304841&P{PZ}smt304493
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    27C7-27C8
    27C7-27C8
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    27C4-27C5
    27C7--8 27C7--9
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (14)
    Genomic Clones (15)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (136)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: smt3 SUMO

      Source for identity of: Sumo smt3

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: smt3 l(2)04493

      Source for merge of: smt3 anon- EST:Posey240

      Source for merge of: smt3 l(2)SH0182

      Additional comments

      Renamed from 'smt3' to 'Sumo' to reflect community usage and nomenclature used for orthologs, consistent with naming conventions of other D. melanogaster ubiquitin-like proteins.

      Other Comments

      RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes defects in the formation of monastral bipolar spindles when assayed in S2 cells in the presence of Cdc27 dsRNA. This phenotype cannot be observed when the screen is performed without Cdc27 dsRNA.

      Expression is enriched in embryonic gonads.

      S2 cells treated with dsRNA generated against this gene show reduced phagocytosis of Candida albicans compared to untreated cells.

      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against smt3 that is transfected into S2 treated with Listeria monocytogenes reveals smt3 to be involved in Listeria monocytogenes intracellular growth.

      RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.

      smt3 plays a maternal role in A/P polarity and patterning.

      6 alleles of l(2)SH0182 recovered in a P-insertion screen.

      Area matching Drosophila gene SMT3, Acc. No. AF053083.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 56 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
      EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (22)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      anon-EST:Posey240
      l(2)SH0182
      l(2)SH2 0182
      Name Synonyms
      SUMO protein
      Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier
      Small ubiquitin like modifier
      lethal (2) SH0182
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0026170
      • FBgn0010577
      • FBgn0025539
      • FBgn0069078
      • FBgn0065910
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (179)