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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\wupA
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
wings up A
Annotation Symbol
CG7178
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0283471
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
wings up A (wupA) encodes a cytoskeletal protein of the troponin complex of the muscle thin filament. It is involved in calcium-dependent regulation of muscle contraction, and in development of the embryonic heart, skeletal muscle and flight muscle It also contributes to non-muscle functions such as apico-basal polarity formation, nuclear division and maintenance of nuclear integrity. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

TnI, hdp, troponin I, heldup, TpnI

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:18,105,568..18,116,922 [-]
Recombination map
1-59
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:18105568..18116922
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (14 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in heart contraction
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in heart development
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
involved_in myofibril assembly
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
involved_in nuclear division
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with nucleus
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001978
(assigned by InterPro )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the troponin I family. (P36188)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
wings up A (wupA) encodes a cytoskeletal protein of the troponin complex of the muscle thin filament. It is involved in calcium-dependent regulation of muscle contraction, and in development of the embryonic heart, skeletal muscle and flight muscle It also contributes to non-muscle functions such as apico-basal polarity formation, nuclear division and maintenance of nuclear integrity. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
TROPONIN I ISOFORMS -
The troponin complex associates with tropomyosin (Tm1) and controls the contraction of the striated muscle in response to changes in intracellular calcium concentration. The troponin-I subunit isoforms are encoded by a single gene, wupA. In the absence of a calcium ion stimulus, troponin-I binds to actin in thin myofilaments inhibiting the movement of tropomyosin from the myosin-binding sites. (Adapted from FBrf0226138 and PMID:31448287.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Troponin I is the ATPase inhibitory subunit of troponin in the thin filament regulatory complex. Involved in the development and maintenance of muscle and nervous system. May also be involved in the cytoskeletal apparatus.
(UniProt, P36188)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

cytoskeletal protein - along with Tropomyosin regulates muscle contraction - required to maintain nuclear integrity and apico-basal polarity during early embryogenesis - required for myofibrillogenesis and sarcomere formation in Drosophila flight muscle

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
13
Number of Unique Polypeptides
9

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\wupA for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.48

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.56

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0074520
1160
208
FBtr0074521
1160
208
FBtr0074522
1160
208
FBtr0074523
1257
208
FBtr0074526
1129
208
FBtr0074525
1129
208
FBtr0074524
1343
269
FBtr0308235
1212
260
FBtr0308236
1029
199
FBtr0308237
1039
199
FBtr0336895
1159
184
FBtr0336896
1345
184
FBtr0336897
1347
184
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.4, 1.2, 1.0 (northern blot)

1.3, 1.2, 1.1 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0074294
24.5
208
10.47
FBpp0074295
24.4
208
10.28
FBpp0074296
24.7
208
10.08
FBpp0074297
24.4
208
10.44
FBpp0074300
24.4
208
10.44
FBpp0074299
24.7
208
10.08
FBpp0074298
30.1
269
10.22
FBpp0300555
29.1
260
10.42
FBpp0300556
23.4
199
10.65
FBpp0300557
23.5
199
10.67
FBpp0307835
21.6
184
10.41
FBpp0307836
21.6
184
10.41
FBpp0307837
21.6
184
10.41
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

208 aa isoforms: wupA-PC, wupA-PF
208 aa isoforms: wupA-PD, wupA-PE
184 aa isoforms: wupA-PK, wupA-PL, wupA-PM
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

269, 208 (aa); 28.8, 24.5 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Binds to actin and tropomyosin.

(UniProt, P36188)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\wupA using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
radioisotope in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mesoderm

Comment: reference states 12 hr AEL

RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with nucleus
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\wupA in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 29 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 24 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of wupA
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of wupA
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 19 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
cuticle & procephalic segment
dorsal medial muscle & sarcomere
dorsal medial muscle & striated muscle thick filament
dorsal medial muscle & striated muscle thin filament
embryonic somatic muscle & Z disc (with wupAD3)
embryonic somatic muscle & Z disc (with wupAhdp-2)
indirect flight muscle & myofibril
indirect flight muscle & myotube
indirect flight muscle & sarcomere
indirect flight muscle & striated muscle thick filament
indirect flight muscle & striated muscle thin filament
indirect flight muscle & Z disc
indirect flight muscle & Z disc (with wupAD3)
indirect flight muscle & Z disc (with wupAhdp-2)
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
1  
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
1  
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
12 of 12
Yes
Yes
8 of 12
No
Yes
8 of 12
No
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (14)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190JAV )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150F7W )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0Q27 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0QDK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 3 )
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 7 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Binds to actin and tropomyosin.
(UniProt, P36188 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map
1-59
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:18,105,568..18,116,922 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
17A3-18A2
Left limit from inclusion within Df(1)N19 (FBrf0104513) Right limit from inclusion within Df(1)N19 (FBrf0104513)
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
16F-16F
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
16F-17A
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (7)
Genomic Clones (10)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (345)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
Other clones
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of

Source for merge of: wupA fliH

Additional comments
Other Comments

Haploinsufficient locus.

wupA transheterozygotes show transvection, evidenced by normal wing position in adults.

Mutation within a 4kb region of mostly non-coding sequences in wupA (the 'dominant lethal' domain of 16F) results in a dominant lethal phenotype due to the inactivation of the wupA, l(1)16Fe and l(1)16Fm genes. This 'dominant lethal' domain probably represents a long-range cis-regulatory region. In direction of increasing cytology: l(1)16Fo? l(1)16Fp? l(1)16Fq? mnb? l(1)16Fa? l(1)16Fb? l(1)16Fc? Sh? anon-16Fc? l(1)16Fh? anon-16Fd? scu? anon-16Fe? Taf8? anon-16Ff? wupA? l(1)16Fe? l(1)16Fm? l(1)16Fk? l(1)16Fn? ari-1? Frq1?

Variation of a microsatellite within the wupA locus has been studied in North American populations of D.melanogaster.

wupA encodes troponin I. Mutations of wupA cause defects in the nervous system, cuticle and muscle development.

A splicing defect in the wupA gene causes abnormal development of flight muscles.

A sequence comparison and numerical analysis of the RRM-containing (RNA recognition motif) proteins suggests that functionally related RRM-containing proteins have significant sequence similarities in their RRMs.

wupA encodes developmental regulated isoforms of troponin I (TnI). Viable mutations of wupA cause selective degeneration of adult thoracic muscles.

The wupA gene encodes troponin-I. Double mutant analysis with Mhc alleles suggests that actomyosin interactions exacerbate the structural or functional defect resulting from mutation in wupA.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 72 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
MARRVEL_MODEL
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (36)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
DROTROPONI
chrX:17947374..17947524
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0025518
  • FBgn0004028
  • FBgn0026829
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (176)