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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Phm
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Peptidylglycine-α-hydroxylating monooxygenase
Annotation Symbol
CG3832
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0283509
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Peptidylglycine-α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (Phm) encodes a hydroxylating monooxygenase, dedicated to the regulated secretory pathway and critical for proper neuropeptide biosynthesis. It promotes the potency and stability of secreted neuropeptides via C-terminal amidation. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-26] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

dPHM

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
2-105
RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:23985175..23988455
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (10 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Biological Process (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in memory
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in response to fungus
inferred from high throughput expression pattern
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000720
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000840899
(assigned by GO_Central )
located_in membrane
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000720
(assigned by InterPro )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase family. (O01404)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Peptidylglycine-α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (Phm) encodes a hydroxylating monooxygenase, dedicated to the regulated secretory pathway and critical for proper neuropeptide biosynthesis. It promotes the potency and stability of secreted neuropeptides via C-terminal amidation. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-26]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
MONOOXYGENASES, REDUCED ASCORBATE AS ONE DONOR -
Monooxygenases, reduced ascorbate as one donor include dehydrogenases that catalyze an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction in which hydrogen or electrons are transferred from reduced ascorbate and one other donor, and one atom of oxygen is incorporated into one donor.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Monooxygenase that catalyzes an essential reaction in C-terminal alpha-amidation of peptides. Produces an unstable peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) intermediate. C-terminal amidation of peptides is required for normal developmental transitions and for biosynthesis of secretory peptides throughout the life.
(UniProt, O01404)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
ll: lanceolate
Wings narrowed at tips and slightly divergent. Eyes slightly smaller than normal and bulging; head narrow. Waddington finds wing effect detectable in middle pupal stage. RK3.
ll2
thumb
ll2: lanceolate-2
Edith M. Wallace, unpublished.
Wings pointed and narrow. Eyes small and bulging. Head narrow. Wing shape first seen in early contraction stage of wing development (23-hr pupa at 25) (Waddington, 1939, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 25: 303). More extreme and more useful than ll. RK2.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

an enzyme involved in producing amidated neuropeptides - amidated secretory peptides are required for signaling events that ensure progression through several critical developmental transitions

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Phm for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.52

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0072203
1603
365
FBtr0072202
1439
365
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.7 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0072112
40.6
365
6.04
FBpp0072111
40.6
365
6.04
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

365 aa isoforms: Phm-PA, Phm-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

365 (aa); 35 (kD observed)

Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Phm using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data

Phm transcript is expressed at a moderate level in the CNS of late stage embryos. Phm transcript is also expressed in dimm-positive neurons in adults.

Prominent Phm staining is observed in the larval CNS in the T1-T3 dorsal and ventral neurons and in lateral neurons. Co-expression with nemy is seen in many lateral and ventral nerve cord cells as well as in A8 pair cells.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Phm is expressed in a series of lateral abdominal neurons, and in some insulin-like producing cells (IPCs).

Co-localisation of Phm and Scer\GAL4dimm-929 is observed in most of the Phm-positive neurons of the central nervous system, corpus cardiacum, midgut cells, peritracheal cells and lateral Kolbchen lbd neurons. Weakly stained Phm-positive neurons do not express Scer\GAL4dimm-929.

Phm protein is detected throughout all levels of the larval CNS as well as in other tissues, including the endocrine glands and the gut. Staining is observed in the cell bodies and in the neuropil of the brain. Staining is also prevalent in secretory cells of the ring gland, salivary gland, and in diverse cells in all levels of the midgut. In the CNS, several strongly staining cells were identified as neuroendocrine neurons. Many Phm-positive neurons were shown to be peptidergic cells.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Phm in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 7 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 5 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Phm
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Phm
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 21 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
6 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
6 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
4 of 13
Yes
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
2 of 12
Yes
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
5 of 15
Yes
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190BP3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091505ZT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0933 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X08VG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0DV8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
6 of 10
5 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-105
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    60A8-60B10
    Left limit from non-inclusion within Df(2R)bw-S46 (FBrf0064297) Right limit from non-inclusion within Df(2R)Px1 (citation unavailable)
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    60A12-60A16
    60B1-60B2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    60A12-60A16
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location

    2-106.7

    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (8)
    Genomic Clones (15)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (127)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: Phm CG3832

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: Phm ll

      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      Phm is required for peptide α-amidating activity throughout the life of Drosophila.

      Genetic combinations with mutants of nub cause additive phenotypes.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer

      Bridges, 3rd April 1923.

      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 55 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
      EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
      Linkouts
      ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (14)
      Reported As
      Name Synonyms
      Peptidyl gycine α hydroxylating monooxygenase
      Peptidylglycine-alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase
      Peptidylglycine-α-hydroxylating monooxygenase
      lanceolate
      lanceolote
      peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase
      peptidylglycine-α-hydroxylating monooxygenase
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0019948
      • FBgn0002554
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (95)