Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\wg
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
wingless
Annotation Symbol
CG4889
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0284084
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
wingless (wg) is a segment polarity gene that encodes a ligand of the Wnt/Wg signaling pathway. Its post-translational modification (addition of palmitoleate by the product of por) is essential for signaling activity. It contributes to segment polarity, tissue growth and patterning, neuromuscular junction morphogenesis, gut homeostasis and long term memory formation. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Also Known As

Wnt, Sp, Wnt-1, Gla, Br

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:7,307,159..7,316,265 [+]
Recombination map

2-25

RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:7307159..7316265
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (78 terms)
Molecular Function (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:fz2; FB:FBgn0016797
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VVX3
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q95ST2
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q8N474
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VWV9
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q95ST2
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000246517
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000246517
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (60 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (58 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:fz2; FB:FBgn0016797
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000246517
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000246517
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000246517
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000246517
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the Wnt family. (P09615)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
WNTs -
WNTs are evolutionarily conserved secreted Cys-rich glycoproteins, defined by sequence homology to the original members of the family - Wnt1 in mouse and wingless (wg) in Drosophila. They are extracellular ligands for members of the Frizzled family of receptors as well as other receptors. (Adapted from PMID:23151663).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a Wnt ligand to a frizzled family receptor on the cell surface. Activation of the pathway leads to the inhibition of cytoplasmic β-catenin (arm) degradation and its subsequent accumulation in the nucleus, where it regulates the transcription of target genes. (Adapted from FBrf0218499 and FBrf0223299).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Binds as a ligand to a family of frizzled seven-transmembrane receptors and acts through a cascade of genes on the nucleus. Segment polarity protein. May be a growth factor. Acts on neighboring cells to regulate at least one gene, the homeobox segmentation gene engrailed. Wg signal represses arm phosphorylation. Wg signaling operates by inactivating the sgg repression of engrailed autoactivation. Wg and Wnt2 have a role in the developing trachea and together are responsible for all dorsal trunk formation. Wg also acts in the developing epidermis. Acts as a morphogen, and diffuses long distances despite its lipidation. Lipophorin is required for diffusion, probably by acting as vehicle for its movement, explaining how it can spread over long distances despite its lipidation. In non-neuronal cells, wls directs wg secretion via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and the retromer complex (a conserved protein complex consisting of Vps26 and Vps35) to sustain a wls traffic loop encompassing the Golgi, the cell surface, an endocytic compartment and a retrograde route leading back to the Golgi. In neuronal cells (the larval motorneuron NMJ), wg signal moves across the synapse through the release of wls-containing exosome-like vesicles.
(UniProt, P09615)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Gla: Glazed
Eye reduced to one-fourth normal area and narrowed to a point ventrally. Eye color generally diluted but with some black patches. Ommatidia coalesce into gleaming, smooth sheet. Malpighian tubes of larva somewhat lighter than wild type; difficult to classify (Brehme and Demerec, 1942, Growth 6: 351-56). Abdomen of heterozygous female fails to distend with eggs; fertility impaired (Craymer, 1980, DIS 55: 200). Homozygous lethal. RK2A.
Sp: Sternopleural
thumb
Sp: Sternopleural
Edith M. Wallace, unpublished.
Sternopleural bristles increased in number. At 19, wild type; at 25, overlaps wild type; at 28-30, no overlap. Apparently does not affect sternopleural bristles on metathoracic segment converted by bx to a mesothoracic segment (Waddington, 1939, Growth Suppl. 1, pp. 37-44). Homozygous lethal. RK2.
spd: spade
Wings short and broad, pointed at tip, and warped at base. Effect on wing shape arises from excessive contraction of epithelium from inflated stage onward (Waddington, 1940, J. Genet. 41: 75-139). Overlaps wild type in existing stock. RK3.
spdfg: spade-flag
Wings about two-thirds the length and three-fourths the width of wild type, held tentlike over abdomen. Alulae absent or vestigial; proximal posterior wing margins often irregular with tendency to fold under about vein L4. Venation usually normal with occasional blistering. spdfg/spd has phenotype varying from slight shortening of wings to a shape midway between the two homozygotes. Excellent viability and fertility. RK1.
wg: wingless
The wg gene is involved both in controlling the segmentation pattern of embryos by affecting the posteriormost cells of each parasegment (Baker, 1987) and in controlling the imaginal disk pattern of the meso- and meta-thoracic segments that develop into wing, halter, and notum in pupae and adults (Sharma, 1973; Sharma and Copra, 1976; Morata and Lawrence, 1977). The gene is believed to control segment organization through an intercellular signaling mechanism (Baker, 1987, 1988b; Cabrera, Alonso, Johnston, Phillips, and Lawrence, 1987, Cell 50: 659-63; Ryjsewijk et al., 1987; Martinez-Arias et al., 1988). Mutants may be viable as adults or lethal as embryos or pupae. In embryonic lethal alleles (Babu, 1977; Nusslein-Volhard and Wieschaus, 1980), each segment shows a mirror-image duplication of the denticle bands at the expense of naked cuticle so that a continuous sheet of denticles (instead of repeated denticle bands) is produced (Cabrera et al., 1987). Dorsal abnormalities are more extreme than ventral ones, the dorsal cuticle being greatly reduced and covered by fine hairs (Baker, 1988a). These embryos lack head structures and filzkorper (Perrimon and Mahowald, 1987, Dev. Biol. 119: 587-600). In the nervous system, a single neuron, RP2, is missing; other neurons in the lineage are normal (Patel, Schafer, Goodman, and Holmgren, 1989, Genes Dev. 3: 890-904). The temperature-sensitive period for wgl-12, a heat-sensitive allele that is lethal at 25 (Baker, 1988a; Mohler, 1988), lies between gastrulation and the beginning of dorsal closure (11 hours after egg laying at 25). In pupal lethal and adult viable alleles, the ready-to-emerge pupae and the adults lack one or both wings and/or halteres, and there is a corresponding duplication of the meso- and metanota (Sharma, 1973; Sharma and Copra, 1976; Morata and Lawrence, 1977; Deak, 1978). This adult phenotype shows incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity and is affected by the ability of the wingless gene to function during the larval period (Baker, 1988a). Low temperature fails to rescue heteroallelic combinations of wg1 or wgl-18 with the heat-sensitive allele wgl-12 after the larval stages. Lethal as well as viable wg alleles are not cell-autonomous in adult mosaics (Babu and Bhat, 1986; Morata and Lawrence, 1977; Baker, 1988a).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

ligand - wnt family - segment polarity gene - plays a primary role in specifying the wing primordium, and a subsequent role mediating the patterning activities of the dorso-ventral compartment boundary - post-translational modification (addition of palmitoleate by Porcupine) is essential for signaling activity - contributes tissue growth and patterning, neuromuscular junction morphogenesis, gut homeostasis and long term memory formation.

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\wg for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

Gene model reviewed during 5.51

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0079432
2919
468
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

3.2 (northern blot)

3.0 (compiled cDNA)

3.0 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0079060
52.0
468
9.19
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

468 (aa); 52.766 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Monomer; folds by intramolecular disulfide bonds (PubMed:11821428). Interacts with porcupine (por) (PubMed:11821428). Interacts with wls; in the Golgi (PubMed:18193037). Interacts with en (PubMed:1335365). Interacts with the proteoglycan Cow (heparan sulfate-bound form); this stabilizes wg and promotes its extracellular distribution (PubMed:25360738).

(UniProt, P09615)
Post Translational Modification

Palmitoleoylated by porcupine. The lipid group functions as a sorting signal, targeting the ligand to polarized vesicles that transport wg to unique sites at the cell surface. Depalmitoleoylated by notum, leading to inhibit Wnt signaling pathway.

Major form is glycosylated at 2 sites, glycosylation is stimulated by porcupine at the ER.

(UniProt, P09615)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\wg using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
dorsal ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

mesectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

mesoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

ventral ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

wg transcript distribution follows a similar pattern to the protein. Transcripts are first detected at early nuclear cycle 14 and remain strong through germband extension. They are first detected in the posterior region, starting slightly before anterior expression and posterior wg protein expression. At mid nuclear cycle 14, levels of the posterior band have increased and transcripts for segmental bands begin to appear in anterior segments. In early gastrulation, each segment has a thin stripe of wg mRNA and the posterior wg band is most intense. At stage 7, the posterior stripe remains strong and moves dorsally to form the "midgut plate". At stage 10, the posterior tissue expressing wg invaginates to later form the hindgut.

wg transcript is detected in the late third instar larval wing disc in a stripe that corresponds to the future wing margin and in two concentric rings that encircle the wing pouch. The inner wing gives rise to the distal hinge structures and the outer ring gives rise to proximal hinge structures. An additional stripe of wg expression marks the future mesonotum.

At 5 h after egg laying (AEL), wg is expressed in two rings of the hindgut, the inner covering the presumptive tubule primordia.

In early embryos wg transcript is expressed in two anterior domains and one broad posterior domain.

Expression of wg is seen in several domains of the wing disc, including two rings surrounding the wing pouch, the inner of which develops into the more distal stripe running through the adult wing hinge.

en and wg are expressed in imaginal discs from the time the imaginal disc cells segregate from the larval epidermis until the end of the third larval instar. wg is generally expressed in the anterior portions of the imaginal discs.

wg transcription is repressed by ectopic eve protein in evehs.PS embryos. Timing suggests that eve is a direct regulator of wg.

wg expression is seen on the ventral side of the proctodeum and then in the primordia of the Malphigian tubules as they evert from the proctodeum. As the tubules grow, wg is associated with the posterior side of each tubule.

wg is expressed in parasegment 8 in the mesoderm. This expression is abolished in abd-A, Ubx, and dpps4 homozygotes.

wg transcripts are most abundant in 3-6hr embryos and in pupae and are detectable at all other stages tested. wg transcripts are first detected in blastoderm embryos at the anterior pole and in a ring around the posterior end. They accumulate in a series of stripes, one per metameric unit in the extended germband. At germ band shortening, the stripes are 3-5 cells wide and include the most posterior cells of the anterior compartment of each segment. wg transcripts are also detected in the CNS, hindgut, procephalic lobe, labrum, and the analia.

The wg transcript is expressed in 16 evenly spaced stripes 2-3 cells wide in germ band extended embryos. Additional hybridization is detected in the procephalic lobe and the anterior head region.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

At the larval neuromuscular junction, wg protein is localized at large type Ib synaptic boutons in a dynamic pattern of punctuate distribution at the synaptic interface between motor neuron and muscle.

wg protein is detected in the intestinal stem cells, enteroblasts, and enteroendocrine cells in the posterior midgut epithelium.

The first expression of wg protein appears during cellularization of the blastoderm. At mid nuclear cycle 14, posterior wg appears in a band at 10% egg length. Two patches of anterior expression at 85% and 100% egg length are seen. This is before the appearance of any segmental stripes. As blastoderm stage progresses, the posterior stripe becomes stronger and remains the most prominent region of wg expression during gastrulation and early germ band extension. The segmental stripes appear sequentially from anterior to posterior during late cell cycle 14 blastoderm stage. During early gastrulation (stage 6), all 14 of the segmental stripes are formed and a strong posterior band of wg remains at 10% egg length. By late gastrulation, the posterior wg band migrates to a region called the midgut plate, which invaginates at the extended germ band and eventually forms the hindgut. wg is found in the future hindgut. The expression of the posterior band of wg was compared to other gap and pair-rule genes. wg is expressed subsequent to hb protein and appears during cellularization of the blastoderm in a narrow band posterior to the posterior hb stripe. Kr is first detected during late syncytial blastoderm but wg posterior expression just posterior to the Kr domain appears at mid nuclear cycle 14. eve antigen is first detected at the early blastoderm stage. wg posterior band expression occurs at mid nuclear cycle 14 posterior to the seventh eve stripe.

wg is expressed in all dorsal and ventral abdominal histoblast nest in segments A1-7 in females at 26hr APF. In males, expression is absent in segment A7 at 26hr APF.

At 0 and 5 hours after the second to third instar larval transition, wg is expressed in a stripe in the presumptive wing margin. At 10 hours, a ring of wg appears around the wing pouch. A faint patch of wg is visible in the notum at 15 hours and is more clearly resolved by 25 hours.

wg protein is not detected in embryonic lymph glands; expression is first detected in majority of lymph gland cells in newly-hatched first instar larvae, and is uniformly expressed in hematopoietic cells of the lymph gland through mid-second instar. At mid-to-late second instar, wg protein expression is down-regulated in the forming cortical zone of the lymph gland; a drop in wg expression in differentiating hemocytes occurs prior to those cells expressing the hemocyte marker Hml. wg protein expression is maintained in prohemocytes in the medullary zone through late third larval instar; expression is also observed in crystal cells in the cortical zone of the lymph gland. Late in the third larval instar, a second wave of wg protein expression occurs in mature Hml-expressing hemocytes.

wg protein accumulates between the luminal surface of the circular muscles and the basement membrane of the gut epithelia. Weak accumulation is also seen in intestinal stem cells.

In third instar wing disc, wg is expressed distally

in a stripe of cells that will form the adult wing margin and, proximally, in the inner and outer rings. The limit of wg expression in the inner ring coincides proximally with the proximal limit of rn expression and distally with both the distal limit of zfh2 and the proximal limits of dve and nab expression.

wg is expressed in the anterior and posterior boundary cells of the embryonic proventriculus.

At embryonic stage 16, wg is expressed in svp-expressing cells in segments A5-A7. At 30-36 hr APF, wg is expressed transiently in svp-expressing cells in segment A1-A5.

wg protein isdetected in two concentric rings toward the edges of the wing disc and in a stripe along the dorsal/ventral boundary of the wing pouch.

wg protein is detected in the procephalic neurectoderm from stage 8 onward in a domain spanning a broad area of the ocular and anterior antennal segment. Additional domains of wg expression include a small spot of expression in intercalary segment and a expression in the dorsal hemispheres of the clypeo-labral segment. 25% of the neuroblasts in the protocerebrum are wg positive as well as 3 neuroblasts in the deutocerebrum and a single neuroblast in the tritocerebrum.

Expression in procephalic neuroblasts stage 9-11: tritocerebrum - d4; deuterocerebrum - d1, d7, d8; protocerebrum - cd1, cd3, cd6, cd7, cd10-13, pd1, pd3, pd4, pd6, pd7, pd9, pd12, pd13

Strong wg protein expression was observed in glutamatergic type 1b synaptic boutons at the larval neuromuscular junction. The protein was observed both pre- and post-synaptically and evidence indicates that it is secreted from the pre-synaptic neuron and taken up by the post-synaptic muscle cell.

Using conventional staining techniques wg protein is detected in a stripe on the apical side of the presumptive notum. However, when an inactive form of fz2 that is still able to bind the wg protein is overexpressed in the underlying mesoderm, wg protein can be detected in the mesodermal tissue indicating that wg can diffuse across germ layers.

The wg protein is expressed in a specified subset of neuroblasts in embryonic stages 8-11. (see also FBrf 49374)

The expression pattern of wg protein in wghs.P embryos, 3 hours after heat shock, is similar to that in nkd mutant embryos.

wg expression was observed in 5 regions which are anterior to the centers of en expression. These are the "wg antennal stripe", the "wg head blob", the "wg intercalary spot", the "wg expression in the foregut" and the "wg labral spot". The relative positioning of the wg- and en-expressing cells was followed.

wg protein expression is seen on the ventral side of the proctodeum and then in the primordia of the Malpighian tubules as they evert from the proctodeum. As the tubules grow, wg protein is associated with the posterior side of each tubule.

The wg protein is expressed in the embryo in a each parasegment, in a 4-5 cell width stripe, just anterior to en expressing cells. Electron microscopy revealed that the wg protein accumulates in the cytoplasm of the wg expressing cells, and is then detected in the ECM and in en expressing cells. It seems that the wg protein is passed directly from cell to cell. wg protein is also detected up to two cell widths away from wg expressing cells.

In strong arm alleles, wg RNA is no longer detectable in embryos by late stage 9.

wg protein does not accumulate in the visceral mesoderm in embryos lacking abd-A. Its expression pattern is unchanged in Ubx mutants and in embryos with ectopic Ubx expression. wg expression is severely reduced in embryos lacking Ubx and its surrounding regulatory regions.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{en1}wg17en40cP1
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{en1}wgen11
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4-wg.M}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}MD758
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}wgGal4
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}wgSp-revP
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{wg(1.2)lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{wg-lacZ.nls}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{WLZ2.5L}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{WLZ4.5L}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{WLZΔG}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\wg in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 124 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 140 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of wg
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of wg
Deletions and Duplications ( 28 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
bouton & microtubule
dorsal mesothoracic disc & peripodial epithelium | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PL
dorsal mesothoracic disc & peripodial epithelium | somatic clone | cell non-autonomous, with Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PL
embryonic/larval dorsal vessel & embryonic myoblast
embryonic/larval somatic muscle & embryonic myoblast | dorsal
embryonic leading edge cell & actin filament
embryonic leading edge cell & actin filament, with Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1
embryonic leading edge cell & filopodium
embryonic leading edge cell & microtubule
embryonic leading edge cell primordium & microtubule
larval hindgut & ectoderm
leg & cuticle | dorsal
macrochaeta & scutum
Malpighian tubule & cell | conditional ts
mesothoracic pleurum & microchaeta
microchaeta & scutum
microchaeta & tarsal segment 5, with Scer\GAL4Dll-em212
mitochondrion & bouton
sensory mother cell & dorsal mesothoracic disc | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4sd-SG29.1
wing & epidermis
wing & macrochaeta
wing & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096
wing & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4C-765
wing & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4sd-SG29.1
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (19)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
1  
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (19)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (16)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (19)
13 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (24)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091906KM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915049J )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W05K3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X07DR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0OFF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (6)
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 4 )
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
RNA-RNA
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
suppressible
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
suppressible
suppressible
suppressible
suppressible