β-tubulin, β1-tubulin, β1, β1 tubulin, tubulin
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.51
None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.
Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells. Interacts with mgr and Vhl.
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\βTub56D using the Feature Mapper tool.
Comment: reported as head epidermis primordium
Comment: reported as head epidermis primordium
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\βTub56D in GBrowse 2
Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Host gene for maternally inherited stable intronic sequence RNA (sisRNA).
Candidate stable intronic sequence RNA (sisRNA) identified within 5'UTR of this gene.
Mutants isolated in a screen of the second chromosome identifying genes affecting disc morphology.
Insertion of a myotube into the epidermis is a prerequisite for the induction of βTub56D transcription; muscle loss (e.g. in rost and insc mutants) abolishes βTub56D transcription in the corresponding apodemes.
Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs have identified three separate elements localised either far upstream, either promoter proximal or within the intron of βTub56D necessary for the full level of βTub56D gene expression.
Mixtures of ncd or Khc motor domain treated with the zero-length cross linker EDC generates covalently cross linked products of ncd or Khc with βTub56D and ncd or Khc with αTub84B. These results indicate that kinesin family motors of opposite polarity interact with both βTub56D and αTub84B and support a model in which some portion of each ncd or Khc proteins motor domain overlaps adjacent βTub56D and αTub84B subunits.
Gene contains an RNA polymerase II complex which pauses after synthesis of a short transcript. In vivo ultraviolet crosslinking techniques demonstrate phosphorylation of the carboxy terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II could either regulate the transition of polymerase from a paused to an elongated complex or be a consequence of the transition from paused to elongated.
The large intron 1 of βTub56D is conserved with β3 tubulin genes. The regulatory regions responsible for expression of βTub56D in somatic cells of the testis are located in the single large intron positioned between the codons of amino acids 19 and 20. Transcription of βTub56D in germ cells is dependent on upstream sequences, deletion analysis demonstrates a short promoter-proximal fragment is responsible.
βTub56D-lacZ fusions were used to study the expression of βTub56D in muscle attachment sites. Promoter/intron deletion analysis identified a classic 14bp enhancer present in the βTub56D intron in 3 copies: no cooperativity of effect on expression is evident for the enhancer. Expression of βTub56D begins as the muscles make contact with the muscle attachment sites.
Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs demonstrate that transcription of βTub56D starts shortly after the action of genes which participate in the decision of epidermal versus neural cell fate. Expression is regulated by independent, cell-type specific enhancers in the intron for the PNS and apodemes, while maternal and CNS expression is directed by cooperation between upstream promoter elements and corresponding enhancers in the intron.
Tubulins are the main structural components of microtubules in mitotic and meiotic spindles, cilia, flagella, neural processes and the cytoskeleton; nontubulin proteins (MAPS or microtubule-associated proteins) are involved along with tubulins in the formation of specialized microtubules (Theurkauf, Baum, Bo and Wensink, 1986; Rudolph, Kimble, Hoyle, Subler and Raff, 1987). Tubulin proteins are found in a wide variety of species from unicellular organisms to man; their biochemical and molecular structure is highly conserved. The α- and β-subunits from different organisms can be combined in vitro into hybrid microtubule structures and there is a high level of primary amino acid sequence identity in the proteins (Sanchez, Natzle, Cleveland, Kirschner and McCarthy, 1980; Raff, 1984). In D.melanogaster, two multigene families, each made up of four members, code for α- and β-tubulins, each tubulin subunit being a 55,000 dalton polypeptide. The tubulin genes in each multigene family are dispersed in the second and/or third chromosomes rather than arranged in clusters. βTub56D is a structural gene for β-tubulin. Its mRNA is maternally stored in the oocytes and expressed in the nurse cells and in early embryos (Natzle and McCarthy, 1984; Gasch, Hinz, Leiss and Renkawitz-Pohl, 1988); at this stage, the transcripts are evenly distributed throughout the embryo, but later in development they are concentrated in the primordia of the nervous system and their derivatives (the supra-oesophageal ganglion and ventral nerve cord) and in the visceral mesoderm. Since βTub56D is expressed throughout development and in all adult tissues (Rudolph, Kimble, Hoyle, Subler and Raff, 1987), βTub56D tubulin is probably involved in all the microtubular structures necessary for cell division and cell shape (Raff, Fuller, Kaufman, Kemphues, Rudolph and Raff, 1982; Biolojan et al., 1984). It is the major β-tubulin of adult flies in all structures except the testis.