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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\speck
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
speck
Annotation Symbol
CG3318
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0287831
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase (2.3.1.5)
Aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (2.3.1.87)
Gene Summary
Catalyzes N-acetylation of tryptamine, tyramine, dopamine, serotonin and octopamine (PubMed:7498465, PubMed:8901578, PubMed:25406072). In astrocytes, regulates sleep homeostasis by limiting the accumulation of serotonin and dopamine in the brain upon sleep deprivation (PubMed:10710313, PubMed:32955431). Is not essential for sclerotization (PubMed:9703021). (UniProt, Q94521)
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Also Known As

Dat, sp, AANAT1, aaNAT, Dat1

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
2-106
RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:24139563..24157762
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (10 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001463139
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
involved_in sleep
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001463139
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the acetyltransferase family. AANAT subfamily. (Q94521)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
Acetyl-CoA + an arylamine = CoA + an N-acetylarylamine (2.3.1.5)
Acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine = CoA + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine (2.3.1.87)
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASES -
Arylalkylamine n-acetyltransferases catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to a nitrogen atom on an aralkylamine. This is the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of melatonin and other N-acetylarylalkylamides, and is a critical step in Drosophila melanogaster for the inactivation of the bioactive amines and the sclerotization of the cuticle. (Adapted from FBrf0227041.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Catalyzes N-acetylation of tryptamine, tyramine, dopamine, serotonin and octopamine (PubMed:7498465, PubMed:8901578, PubMed:25406072). In astrocytes, regulates sleep homeostasis by limiting the accumulation of serotonin and dopamine in the brain upon sleep deprivation (PubMed:10710313, PubMed:32955431). Is not essential for sclerotization (PubMed:9703021).
(UniProt, Q94521)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Dat: Dopamine-N-acetyltransferase
The structural gene for dopa N-acetylase (EC 3.2.1.5). Molecular weight 2.9 x 104 daltons. Biochemical characterization by Maranda and Hodgetts (1977). Marsh and Wright (1980) argue from developmental profile that enzyme level not coordinately controlled with that of dopa decarboxylase and not hormonally regulated.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\speck for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.52

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Gene model reviewed during 5.54

Mutation in sequenced strain: insertion of transposon (412 element).

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0072254
1275
240
FBtr0072255
1588
275
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.65 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0072163
27.0
240
4.94
FBpp0089101
31.0
275
4.98
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

275 (aa); 31 (kD predicted)

Comments

speck expressed in COS-7 cells acetylates dopamine, tryptamine, and serotonin.

External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\speck using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

speck protein expression was observed in distinct populations of cells throughout the brain. It is observed in both neurons (often nuclear) and glia (primarily cytoplasmic). Coexpression studies with markers shows glial cell expression in astrocytes but not ensheathing glia. Marker studies show that speck protein is expressed in serotonergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neurons but not in Dopaminergic or Octopaminergic neurons. Expression is largely absent from the neuropils of the mushroom body and fan-shaped body. Expression in the neuropil of the ellipsoid body is almost exclusively in neurons. Elsewhere, as in antennal lobe and subesophageal ganglion, expression within neuropil regions came primarily from the infiltrative processes of astrocytes.

speck enzyme activity assayed at 3hr intervals does not show appreciable circadian cycling.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\speck in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 17 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 8 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of speck
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of speck
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 27 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No records found.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No records found.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No records found.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No records found.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (9)
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
Yes
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190CT9 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091508W6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0E5Q )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0EOI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0NJ5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (10)
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-106
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    60C1-60C2
    Left limit from complementation mapping against In(2R)XP23 (FBrf0051917) Right limit from complementation mapping against In(2R)XP26 (FBrf0051917)
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    60B-60B
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location

    2-107.0

    2-107

    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes

    0.17 cM or less from sp.

    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (545)
    Genomic Clones (19)
    cDNA Clones (51)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       

      polyclonal

      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: Dat CG3318

      Source for identity of: AANAT1 Dat

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: sp AANAT1

      Source for merge of: Aanat1 Dat

      Additional comments

      The speck complementation group may map to the AANAT1 gene (CG3318).

      "Dat" (FBgn0019643) has been renamed to "AANAT1" (Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 1) in order to: (i) more accurately reflect its function - dopamine is not the only (or best) substrate (see FBrf0227041); (ii) be consistent with the naming of other genes encoding arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferases (AANATs); and (iii) reduce confusion with the different gene named "DAT" (Dopamine transporter, FBgn0034136), from which the symbol differed only by case.

      FlyBase curator comment: FBrf0044478 showed that lesions in the gene corresponding to the CG10484 annotation reduce the activity of the A2 component of phenol oxidase originally described in FBrf0017315, while the A1 and A3 phenol oxidase components originally described in FBrf0017315 are unaffected in these mutant alleles. Thus FBrf0044478 states that the mutants probably identify a structural locus for the A2 phenol oxidase component and designated this locus "Diphenol oxidase-A2, Dox-A2". However, cloning of the gene in FBrf0054017 revealed that the encoded protein had no homology to non-insect phenol oxidases at that time, but instead shows high amino acid identity (57% over the entire length of the D. melanogaster protein) to the mouse Psmd3 gene (accession number MGI:48687), which encodes a proteasome subunit. FBrf0128494 showed that the protein encoded by the CG10484 annotation is a subunit of the regulatory complex of the 26S proteasome in D. melanogaster. FBrf0058767 suggests that the A2 component of phenol oxidase seen in FBrf0017315 could have been an artificial derivative produced from either the A1 or A3 components by the activity of endogenous proteases during extraction, since protease inhibitors were not used in sample preparation (the A2 phenol oxidase component was not detected in FBrf0058767 where serine proteases inhibitors were present during sample preparation). Alternatively, FBrf0027144 shows that the speck (sp) mutants have a marked decreased in the amount of the A2 component of phenol oxidase, and thus FBrf0044480 notes that the A2 component may be a dimer of two non-identical subunits coded for by "Dox-A2" and sp. Given the uncertainty over whether the gene corresponding to the CG10484 annotation does encode a structural locus for the A2 component of phenol oxidase, but the good evidence that it is a proteasome subunit, the gene has been renamed to "Rpn3, Regulatory particle non-ATPase 3" following the nomenclature used in FBrf0152082, which uses the nomenclature used for S. cerevisiae proteasome regulatory particle subunits described in PubMed:9697412. In addition, the annotation corresponding to the gene has been renamed from CG10484 to CG42641 in release 5.22 of the genome annotation.

      Other Comments

      Dat is not essential for the process of sclerotisation.

      Structural gene for arylamine N-acetyltransferase; also shows dopamine acetyltransferase activity.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 21 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
      EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (30)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      Aanat1
      Name Synonyms
      Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase
      Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 1
      Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase-1
      Dopamine N acetyltransferase
      Dopamine N-acetyltransferase
      Dopamine acetyltransferase
      arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase
      arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 1
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0003466
      • FBgn0019643
      • FBgn0000418
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (144)