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General Information
Name
diabetes mellitus type 2, susceptibility to, AKT-related
FlyBase ID
FBhh0000170
OMIM
Overview

This report describes diabetes mellitus type 2, susceptibility to, AKT-related. The human AKT2 gene has been implicated as a susceptibility locus for noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. AKT2 is one of three related serine/threonine-protein kinases in human (the others are AKT1 and AKT3); among its many functions, AKT2 plays a role in the regulation of glucose uptake into cells. AKT2 has also been implicated in a second disease, a type of hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia (OMIM:240900). There is a single fly gene, Dmel\Akt1, orthologous to the three AKT genes in human. Classical hypomorphic alleles, RNAi-targeting constructs, and alleles caused by insertional mutagenesis have been generated for Dmel\Akt1.

The human AKT1 gene has not been introduced into flies. A series of UAS constructs of the human Hsap\AKT2 gene, both wild-type and modified, have been introduced into flies, but have not been characterized.

Loss of function alleles of Dmel\Akt1 are lethal. Some compound heterozygous combinations survive to adulthood; they exhibit reduced body weight relative to controls and lipid content is increased relative to controls. Physical interaction(s) of the Dmel\Akt1 protein product have been described; see below and in the gene report for Akt1. Notably, interaction of Dmel\Akt1 with Dmel\trbl has been characterized in the context of this Drosophila diabetes type 2 model; see the human disease model report 'insulin pathway effects, TRIB-related' (FBhh0000822).

[updated Apr. 2020 by FlyBase; FBrf0222196]

Disease Summary Information
Parent Disease Summary: diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent (type 2) (fly models overview)
Symptoms and phenotype

Diabetes mellitus, type 2, also called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, occurs when cells become resistant to the effects of insulin, thus disrupting the body's ability to metabolize glucose and to properly control the amount of sugar in the blood. [from Genetics Home Reference, Diabetes; 2016.02.02]

Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious problems such as cataracts and/or retinopathy, impaired kidney function, diabetic neuropathy, and macrovascular complications (heart attack, stroke, peripheral vascular disease). [from endocrineweb; http://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/type-2-diabetes/type-2-diabetes-complications]

Specific Disease Summary: diabetes mellitus type 2, susceptibility to, AKT-related
OMIM report
Human gene(s) implicated
Symptoms and phenotype

See general description, above.

Genetics

Mutations in the gene AKT2 have been implicated in the development of diabetes mellitus type 2; in one family studied, the mutation was transmitted as a dominant. [from OMIM:164731; 2016.02.04]

Cellular phenotype and pathology
Molecular information

AKT2 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis; over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far. One of the functions of AKT2 is regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface. [from UniProt:P31751; 2016.02.03]

External links
Disease synonyms
diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, AKT2-related
diabetes mellitus type 2, susceptibility to, AKT2-related
Ortholog Information
Human gene(s) in FlyBase
Human gene (HGNC)
D. melanogaster ortholog (based on DIOPT)
Comments on ortholog(s)

Many to one: 2 human to 1 Drosophila; additional high-scoring ortholog in human is AKT3; additional lower scoring orthologs are also present in human.

Other mammalian ortholog(s) used
    D. melanogaster Gene Information (1)
    Gene Snapshot
    Akt kinase (Akt) encodes the core kinase component of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor pathway. It functions downstream of the product of Pi3K92E and is activated by phosphatidylinositol binding and phosphorylation. It regulates cell growth and survival, stress responses and ageing. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
    Gene Groups / Pathways
    Comments on ortholog(s)

    Ortholog of human genes AKT2 and AKT3 (1 Drosophila to 2 human). Dmel\Akt1 shares 62-64% identity and 76-77% similarity with these two human genes.

    Orthologs and Alignments from DRSC
    DIOPT - DRSC Integrative Ortholog Prediction Tool - Click the link below to search for orthologs in Humans
    Synthetic Gene(s) Used (0)
    Summary of Physical Interactions (130 groups)
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
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    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
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    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
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    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, western blot, anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, anti tag western blot
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    pull down, autoradiography, two hybrid, anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, western blot
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    anti bait coimmunoprecipitation, western blot
    anti tag coimmunoprecipitation, Identification by mass spectrometry
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology) (10 alleles)
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 5 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 10 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Genetic Tools, Stocks and Reagents
    Sources of Stocks
    Contact lab of origin for a reagent not available from a public stock center.
    Bloomington Stock Center Disease Page
    Selected mammalian transgenes
    Allele
    Transgene
    Publicly Available Stocks
    Selected Drosophila transgenes
    Allele
    Transgene
    Publicly Available Stocks
    RNAi constructs available
    Allele
    Transgene
    Publicly Available Stocks
    Selected Drosophila classical alleles
    Allele
    Allele class
    Mutagen
    Publicly Available Stocks
    loss of function allele
    References (16)