The role of neuroblasts in the development of the Drosophila larval/adult brain has served as a model for the role of adult neural stem cells in normal neural development and in tumor formation. Loss-of-function mutations that affect normal neuroblast differentiation in Drosophila often result in conspicuous phenotypes of overproliferation and tumorous expansion of the brain at the larval stage. Based on this phenotype, a number of genes impacting this process in flies have been identified. This report describes a human disease model using the fly gene l(2)gl. In human, there are two genes orthologous to Dmel\l(2)gl, the cortical cytoskeletal proteins LLGL1 and LLGL2. Classical amorphic and hypomorphic mutations, RNAi-targeting constructs, and alleles caused by insertional mutagenesis have been generated for Dmel\l(2)gl.
Animals homozygous for loss-of-function mutations of Dmel\l(2)gl typically die during the larval stage and exhibit abnormal overproliferation of tissues, including in the brain, imaginal discs, and hematopoietic organs; cell-polarity defects are observed. Using a tissue transplant assay for neoplastic capacity, discs of larvae transplanted into wild-type adult female abdomens form large contained tumors; transplanted optic primordia from larval brains form invasive neuroblastomas, which grow rapidly, killing the host within 7-14 days; they can be serially cultured in adult abdomens. Multiple physical and many genetic interactions for Dmel\l(2)gl have been described; see below and in the gene report for l(2)gl.
See related human disease model reports: human disease models for epithelial cancers related to the LLGL gene (FBhh0000591, FBhh0000590, FBhh0000588) and human disease models for malignant glioma (FBhh0000399, FBhh0000401, FBhh0000403, FBhh0000404, FBhh0000668).
[updated Mar. 2018 by FlyBase; FBrf0222196]
Neural stem cells have the ability to self-renew and give rise to neurons and glial cells. In Drosophila, the role and regulation of neural stem cells (neuroblasts) at multiple stages has been studied extensively. The study of neuroblasts in the development of the larval/adult brain has served as a model for the role of adult stem cells in normal neural development and in tumor formation. Asymmetric cell division, a critical part of the process of stem cell renewal vs. differentiation, has been studied in the context of this system.
LLGL1 and LLGL2 encode cortical cytoskeleton proteins found in a complex involved in maintaining cell polarity and epithelial integrity, the Scribble Cell Polarity Complex. This complex plays a role in the initial phase of the establishment of epithelial cell polarity; it is involved in the regulation of mitotic spindle orientation, proliferation, differentiation, and tissue organization of neuroepithelial cells. [Gene Cards, LLGL1, LLGL2; 2017.08.01]
Many to one: 2 human to 1 Drosophila; the second human gene is LLGL1.
Many to one: 2 human to 1 Drosophila; the second human gene is LLGL2.