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General Information
Name
infection by viral pathogens
FlyBase ID
FBhh0001059
Disease Ontology Term
Parent Disease
OMIM
Overview

This is a report collecting publications that describe Drosophila models of infection by viruses that can infect humans. There are detailed reports available for Drosophila models of infection by specific viruses or families of viruses, see the 'Related Diseases' section below.

There are two prevalent methods to study infection using Drosophila: direct infection and transgenic expression of pathogenic proteins. For a review of fly models using transgenic expression of pathogenic proteins see Harnish et al., 2021 (FBrf02488558).

This report does not cover interactions with viruses that do not infect humans, or the mechanics of the innate immune system response in general rather than in response to a specific virus.

[updated May 2021 by FlyBase; FBrf0222196]

Disease Summary Information
Disease Summary: infection by viral pathogens
OMIM report
Human gene(s) implicated
Symptoms and phenotype
Genetics
Cellular phenotype and pathology

Cell-mediated immunity in insects includes phagocytosis, nodulation, encapsulation, and melanization, and is primarily mediated by the hemocytes or blood cells. The majority of blood cells constitute the macrophage-like plasmatocytes (90-95% of hemocytes in Drosophila that are specialized in the engulfment and degradation of cellular debris, debris and invading pathogens. (Swevers et al. 2018 and references therein, FBrf0238851.)

Molecular information

In Drosophila, the major RNAi pathway involved in antiviral immunity is initiated by the processing of virus-derived dsRNA molecules to viral small interfering RNAs (viral siRNAs or vsiRNAs) by Dicer-2 (Dcr-2) enzyme. Viral siRNAs are subsequently loaded in an effector complex named RISC (RNAi-induced silencing complex) with Argonaute 2 (AGO2) as central molecule. SiRNA-programmed RISC complexes subsequently scan cellular RNA populations for complementary sequences and cause specific RNA degradation after specific siRNA-mRNA hybridization. The central factors of the siRNA pathway, Dcr-2 and AGO2, were demonstrated to have undergone accelerated evolution as a consequence of adaptive virus-host arms races. (Swevers et al. 2018 and references therein, FBrf0238851.)

External links
    Disease synonyms
    Ortholog Information
    Human gene(s) in FlyBase
      Other mammalian ortholog(s) used
        D. melanogaster Gene Information (0)
        Other Genes Used: Viral, Bacterial, Synthetic (0)
          Summary of Physical Interactions (0 groups)
          Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology) (0 alleles)
          Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
          Genetic Tools, Stocks and Reagents
          Sources of Stocks
          Contact lab of origin for a reagent not available from a public stock center.
          Bloomington Stock Center Disease Page
          Selected mammalian transgenes
          Allele
          Transgene
          Publicly Available Stocks
          Selected Drosophila transgenes
          Allele
          Transgene
          Publicly Available Stocks
          RNAi constructs available
          Allele
          Transgene
          Publicly Available Stocks
          Selected Drosophila classical alleles
          Allele
          Allele class
          Mutagen
          Publicly Available Stocks
          References (41)