Neural tissues controlling circadian rhythmicity have been identified in a variety of organisms and are often closely associated with the visual system. In Drosophila, the clock gene period (per), which is required for circadian rhythms, is expressed in many neurons and glia throughout the eye and brain. We asked whether biological rhythms could be generated if per expression were restricted to a subset of these cells that is involved in photoreception. Here we demonstrate that expression of per under the control of the glass promoter confers both behavioral and molecular rhythmicity. glass is required for development of Drosophila photoreceptors, and this promoter is active in eyes, ocelli, and certain cells of the central brain. When we genetically removed all external photoreceptor cells, rhythms persisted in these transgenic animals. This suggests that a few central brain cells producing glass and per are capable of generating biological rhythms.