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Richardson, H., O'Keefe, L.V., Marty, T., Saint, R. (1995). Ectopic cyclin E expression induces premature entry into S phase and disrupts pattern formation in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc.  Development 121(10): 3371--3379.
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During animal development, cell proliferation is controlled in many cases by regulation of the G1 to S phase transition. Studies of mammalian tissue culture cells have shown that the G1-specific cyclin, cyclin E, can be rate limiting for progression from G1 to S phase. During Drosophila development, down-regulation of cyclin E is required for G1 arrest in terminally differentiating embryonic epidermal cells. Whether cyclin E expression limits progression into S phase in proliferating, as opposed to differentiating, cells during development has not been investigated. Here we show that Drosophila cyclin E (DmcycE) protein is absent in G1 phase cells but appears at the onset of S phase in proliferating cells of the larval optic lobe and eye imaginal disc. We have examined cells in the eye imaginal epithelium, where a clearly defined developmentally regulated G1 to S phase transition occurs. Ectopic expression of DmcycE induces premature entry of most of these G1 cells into S phase. Thus in these cells, control of DmcycE expression is required for regulated entry into S phase. Significantly, a band of eye imaginal disc cells in G1 phase was not induced to enter S phase by ectopic expression of DmcycE. This provides evidence for additional regulatory mechanisms that operate during G1 phase to limit cell proliferation during development. These results demonstrate that the role of cyclin E in regulating progression into S phase in mammalian tissue culture cells applies to some, but not all, cells during Drosophila development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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