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Sonnenfeld, M.J., Jacobs, J.R. (1995). Macrophages and glia participate in the removal of apoptotic neurons from the Drosophila embryonic nervous system.  J. Comp. Neurol. 359(4): 644--652.
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Cell death in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system (CNS) proceeds by apoptosis, which is revealed ultrastructurally by nuclear condensation, shrinkage of cytoplasmic volume, and preservation of intracellular organelles. Apoptotic cells do not accumulate in the CNS but are continuously removed and engulfed by phagocytic haemocytes. To determine whether embryonic glia can function as phagocytes, we studied serial electronic microscopic sections of the Drosophila CNS. Apoptotic cells in the nervous system are engulfed by a variety of glia including midline glia, interface (or longitudinal tract) glia, and nerve root glia. However, the majority of apoptotic cells in the CNS are engulfed by subperineurial glia in a fashion similar to the microglia of the vertebrate CNS. A close proximity between macrophages and subperineurial glia suggests that glia may transfer apoptotic profiles to the macrophages. Embryos affected by the maternal-effect mutation Bicaudal-D have no macrophages. In the absence of macrophages, most apoptotic cells are retained at the outer surfaces of the CNS, and subperineurial glia contain an abundance of apoptotic cells. Some apoptotic cells are expelled from the CNS, which suggests that the removal of apoptotic cells can occur in the absence of macrophages. The number of subperineurial glia is unaffected by changes in the rate of neuronal apoptosis.

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    J. Comp. Neurol.
    Journal of Comparative Neurology
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