Engrailed is a nuclear regulatory protein with essential roles in embryonic segmentation and wing morphogenesis. One of its regulatory targets in embryos was shown to be the Polycomb group gene, polyhomeotic. We show here that transheterozygous adult flies, mutant for both engrailed and polyhomeotic, show a gap in the fourth vein. In the corresponding larval imaginal discs, a polyhomeotic-lacZ enhancer trap is not normally activated in anterior cells adjacent to the anterior-posterior boundary. This intermediary region corresponds to the domain of low engrailed expression that appears in the anterior compartment, during L3. Several arguments show that engrailed is responsible for the induction of polyhomeotic in these cells. The role of polyhomeotic in this intermediary region is apparently to maintain the repression of hedgehog in the anterior cells abutting the anterior-posterior boundary, since these cells ectopically express hedgehog when polyhomeotic is not activated. This leads to ectopic expressions first of patched, then of cubitus interruptus and decapentaplegic in the posterior compartment, except for the dorsoventral border cells that are not affected. Thus posterior cells express a new set of genes that are normally characteristic of anterior cells, suggesting a change in the cell identity. Altogether, our data indicate that engrailed and polyhomeotic interactions are required to maintain the anterior-posterior boundary and the posterior cell fate, just prior to the evagination of the wing.