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Martin-Bermudo, M.D., Alvarez-Garcia, I., Brown, N.H. (1999). Migration of the Drosophila primordial midgut cells requires coordination of diverse PS integrin functions.  Development 126(22): 5161--5169.
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Cell migration during embryogenesis involves two populations of cells: the migrating cells and the underlying cells that provide the substratum for migration. The formation of the Drosophila larval midgut involves the migration of the primordial midgut cells along a visceral mesoderm substratum. We show that integrin adhesion receptors are required in both populations of cells for normal rates of migration. In the absence of the PS integrins, the visceral mesoderm is disorganised, the primordial midgut cells do not display their normal motile appearance and their migration is delayed by 2 hours. Removing PS integrin function from the visceral mesoderm alone results in visceral mesoderm disorganization, but only causes a modest delay in migration and does not affect the appearance of the migrating cells. Removing PS integrin function from the migrating cells causes as severe a delay in migration as the complete loss of PS integrin function. The functions of PS1 and PS2 are specific in the two tissues, endoderm and mesoderm, since they cannot substitute for each other. In addition there is a partial redundancy in the function of the two PS integrins expressed in the endoderm, PS1 (alphaPS1betaPS) and PS3 (alphaPS3betaPS), since loss of just one alpha subunit in the midgut results in either a modest delay (alphaPS1) or no effect (alphaPS3). We have also examined the roles of small GTPases in promoting migration of the primordial midgut cells. We find that dominant negative (N17) versions of Rac and Cdc42 cause a very similar defect in migration as loss of integrins, while those of Rho and Ras have no effect. Thus integrins are involved in mediating migration by creating an optimal substratum for adhesion, adhering to that substratum and possibly by activating Rac and Cdc42.

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