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Fei, X., He, B., Adler, P.N. (2002). The growth of Drosophila bristles and laterals is not restricted to the tip or base.  J. Cell Sci. 115(19): 3797--3806.
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The highly elongated bristles of Drosophila have proven to be a valuable model system for studying cellular morphogenesis. Extending bristles contain a series of large bundles of actin filaments juxtaposed to the plasma membrane and centrally located microtubules. Models to explain the extension of the bristle have principally focused on the assembly of actin filaments at the distal tip of the bristle. We have used time-lapse observations of wild-type and mutant bristles and the related arista laterals and come to the conclusion that growth takes place throughout the growing cellular extension. This distributed growth can explain the behavior of split laterals and the shape changes seen at the tip during bristle and lateral outgrowth. Inhibitor studies suggest that the microtubule cytoskeleton is essential for maintaining the highly biased axial growth of these structures. We have used fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching to study the dynamics of the cytoskeleton during bristle growth. Our experiments show that actin bundles in growing bristles are quite stable and move in a retrograde fashion. The bristle microtubules are less stable. The retrograde movement of the peripheral actin appears to be counterbalanced by the distally directed movement of cytoplasm in the center of the bristle.

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    J. Cell Sci.
    Journal of Cell Science
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