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Bernard, F., Lalouette, A., Gullaud, M., Jeantet, A.Y., Cossard, R., Zider, A., Ferveur, J.F., Silber, J. (2003). Control of apterous by vestigial drives indirect flight muscle development in Drosophila.  Dev. Biol. 260(2): 391--403.
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Drosophila thoracic muscles are comprised of both direct flight muscles (DFMs) and indirect flight muscles (IFMs). The IFMs can be further subdivided into dorsolongitudinal muscles (DLMs) and dorsoventral muscles (DVMs). The correct patterning of each category of muscles requires the coordination of specific executive regulatory programs. DFM development requires key regulatory genes such as cut (ct) and apterous (ap), whereas IFM development requires vestigial (vg). Using a new vg(null) mutant, we report that a total absence of vg leads to DLM degeneration through an apoptotic process and to a total absence of DVMs in the adult. We show that vg and scalloped (sd), the only known VG transcriptional coactivator, are coexpressed during IFM development. Moreover, we observed an ectopic expression of ct and ap, two markers of DFM development, in developing IFMs of vg(null) pupae. In addition, in vg(null) adult flies, degenerating DLMs express twist (twi) ectopically. We provide evidence that ap ectopic expression can induce per se ectopic twi expression and muscle degeneration. All these data seem to indicate that, in the absence of vg, the IFM developmental program switches into the DFM developmental program. Moreover, we were able to rescue the muscle phenotype of vg(null) flies by using the activity of ap promoter to drive VG expression. Thus, vg appears to be a key regulatory gene of IFM development.

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    Dev. Biol.
    Developmental Biology
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    Alleles (11)
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