Infection of Drosophila melanogaster adults with 6 Vibrio species revealed that V. cholerae was lethal (100% mortality) within 20 h as a result of systemic infection. Avirulent infection by V. vulnificus restricted the subsequent virulent infection by V. cholerae. The immediate transcription of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), most notably Attacin A, was delayed in V. cholerae infection compared to V. vulnificus infection. Ectopic expression of Attacin A and Metchnikowin enhanced the survival of D. melanogaster upon V. cholerae infection. These results suggest that AMPs are important in the response to infections by Vibrio species and that the signaling pathways governing their expression may be targeted by V. cholerae virulence factors to elude the innate immunity of Drosophila.