Transcriptional activation in early spermatocytes involves hundreds of genes, many of which are required for meiosis and spermatid differentiation. A number of the meiotic-arrest genes have been identified as general regulators of transcription; however, the gene-specific transcription factors have remained elusive. To identify such factors, we purified the protein that specifically binds to the promoter of spermatid-differentiation gene Sdic and identified it as Modulo, the Drosophila homologue of nucleolin. Analysis of gene-expression patterns in the male sterile modulo mutant indicates that Modulo supports high expression of the meiotic-arrest genes and is essential for transcription of spermatid-differentiation genes. Expression of Modulo itself is under the control of meiotic-arrest genes and requires the DAZ/DAZL homologue Boule that is involved in the control of G(2)/M transition. Thus, regulatory interactions among Modulo, Boule, and the meiotic-arrest genes integrate meiosis and spermatid differentiation in the male germ line.