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Zielke, N., Querings, S., Rottig, C., Lehner, C., Sprenger, F. (2008). The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is required for rereplication control in endoreplication cycles.  Genes Dev. 22(12): 1690--1703.
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Research paper

Endoreplicating cells undergo multiple rounds of DNA replication leading to polyploidy or polyteny. Oscillation of Cyclin E (CycE)-dependent kinase activity is the main driving force in Drosophila endocycles. High levels of CycE-Cdk2 activity trigger S phase, while down-regulation of CycE-Cdk2 activity is crucial to allow licensing of replication origins. In mitotic cells relicensing in S phase is prevented by Geminin. Here we show that Geminin protein oscillates in endoreplicating salivary glands of Drosophila. Geminin levels are high in S phase, but drop once DNA replication has been completed. DNA licensing is coupled to mitosis through the action of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). We demonstrate that, even though endoreplicating cells never enter mitosis, APC/C activity is required in endoreplicating cells to mediate Geminin oscillation. Down-regulation of APC/C activity results in stabilization of Geminin protein and blocks endocycle progression. Geminin is only abundant in cells with high CycE-Cdk2 activity, suggesting that APC/C-Fzr activity is periodically inhibited by CycE-Cdk2, to prevent relicensing in S-phase cells.

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PMC2428065 (PMC) (EuropePMC)
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    Genes Dev.
    Genes & Development
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