Associative strength between conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) is thought to determine learning efficacy in classical conditioning. Elucidation of the neuronal mechanism that underlies the association between CS and US in the brain is thus critical to understand the principle of memory formation. With a simple brain organization, the Drosophila larva provides an attractive model system to investigate learning at the neurocircuitry level. Previously, we described a single-odor paradigm for larval associative learning using sucrose as a reward, and showed that larval appetitive memory lasts longer than 2 h. In this work, we describe behavioral and genetic characterization of larval aversive olfactory memory formed in our paradigm, and compare its stability and neurocircuitry with those of appetitive memory. Despite identical training paradigms, larval olfactory memory formed with quinine or NaCl is short-lived to be lost in 20 min. As with appetitive memory, larval aversive memory produced in this paradigm depends on intact cAMP signaling, but neither mutation of amnesiac nor suppression of CREB activity affects its kinetics. Neurocircuitry analyses suggest that aversive memory is stored before the presynaptic termini of the larval mushroom body neurons as is the case with appetitive memory. However, synaptic output of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons, which exhibit distinctive innervation patterns on the larval mushroom body and antennal lobe, is differentially required for the acquisition of appetitive and aversive memory, respectively. These results as a whole suggest that the genetically programmed memory circuitries might provide predisposition in the efficacy of inducing longer-lived memory components in associative learning.