We describe a whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) method optimized for detection of the cellular and subcellular distributions of specific mRNA within Drosophila testes and male genital tract. Digoxygenin (dig)-labeled antisense RNA probes are in vitro transcribed from a template synthesized by (RT)-PCR; the probe length is reduced by hydrolysis. Testes and male genital tracts are dissected from adult flies, fixed and processed for hybridization. Both probe and fixed testes can be stored before use. Extensive post-hybridization washing reduces the background. Detection is through alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-dig antibodies followed by a color reaction. This protocol is suitable for low-medium throughput applications with parallel processing of 2-48 samples, and takes 4-5 d to complete. We have used this protocol, which is similar to other RNA ISH protocols, but optimized for whole-mount Drosophila testes, to document the expression of about 1,000 genes in Drosophila melanogaster male genital tract.