In many tissues, two or more types of stem cells share a niche, and how the stem cells coordinate their self-renewal and differentiation is poorly understood. In the Drosophila testis, germ line stem cells (GSCs) and somatic cyst progenitor cells (CPCs) contact each other and share a niche (the hub). The hub expresses a growth factor unpaired (Upd) that activates the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway in GSCs to regulate the stem cell self-renewal. Here, we demonstrate that the JAK/STAT signaling also regulates CPCs self-renewal. We also show that a negative regulator, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 36E (SOCS36E), suppresses JAK/STAT signaling in somatic cells, preventing them from out-competing the GSCs. Furthermore, through selectively manipulating the JAK/STAT signaling level in either CPCs or GSCs, we demonstrate that the somatic JAK/STAT signaling is essential for self-renewal and maintenance of both CPCs and GSCs. These data suggest that a single JAK/STAT signal from the niche orchestrate the competitive and dependent co-existence of GSCs and CPCs in the Drosophila testis niche.