DREF (DNA replication-related element-binding factor) plays important roles in replication and proliferation in vivo by regulating transcription of various genes. However, due to a lack of appropriate cell biological studies in vivo, roles of DREF during a single cell development are poorly understood. To address this question, we focused our attention on macrochaetes bristle development system. Utilizing cell lineage analysis focusing on a single posterior scutellar (PSC) macrochaete sensory organ precursor (SOP) lineages in combination with GAL4/UAS targeted expression system for DREF double strand RNA, we revealed that DREF plays no apparent role in differentiation process during SOP formation. Rather, DREF regulates the timing of asymmetric cell division but perhaps plays no direct role in differentiation during asymmetric cell division. Most importantly, DREF affected replication and growth in shaft cells and/or socket cells. Further analysis revealed that DREF is necessary but not sufficient for nuclear growth and protein synthesis in shaft cells. Finally, it could be demonstrated that DREF plays a critical role in regulating pcna transcription in endocycling shaft cells. All these results provide evidence that DREF plays critical roles, especially in endoreplication process of bristle development, at least in part by regulating the pcna gene expression.