Conserved from humans to Drosophila, the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling cascade is essential for multiple developmental and homeostatic processes, with regulatory molecules controlling pathway activity also highly conserved. We characterize the Drosophila JAK/STAT pathway regulator SOCS36E and show that it functions via two independent mechanisms. First, we show that Drosophila Elongin B/C and Cullin-5 act via the SOCS-box of SOCS36E to reduce pathway activity specifically in response to ligand stimulation--a process that involves endocytic trafficking and lysosomal degradation of the Domeless (Dome) receptor. Second, SOCS36E also suppresses both stimulated and basal pathway activity via an Elongin/Cullin-independent mechanism that is mediated by the N-terminus of SOCS36E, which is required for the physical interaction of SOCS36E with Dome. Although some human SOCS proteins contain N-terminal kinase-inhibitory domains, we do not identify such a region in SOCS36E and propose a model wherein the N-terminal of SOCS36E blocks access to tyrosine residues in Dome. Our biochemical analysis of a SOCS-family regulator from a lower organism highlights the fundamental conserved roles played by regulatory mechanisms in signal transduction.