High tumor burden is associated with increased levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines that influence the pathophysiology of the tumor and its environment. The cellular and molecular events mediating the organismal response to a growing tumor are poorly understood. Here, we report a bidirectional crosstalk between epithelial tumors and the fat body-a peripheral immune tissue-in Drosophila. Tumors trigger a systemic immune response through activation of Eiger/TNF signaling, which leads to Toll pathway upregulation in adipocytes. Reciprocally, Toll elicits a non-tissue-autonomous program in adipocytes, which drives tumor cell death. Hemocytes play a critical role in this system by producing the ligands Spätzle and Eiger, which are required for Toll activation in the fat body and tumor cell death. Altogether, our results provide a paradigm for a long-range tumor suppression function of adipocytes in Drosophila, which may represent an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in the organismal response to solid tumors.