Silencing of transposable elements (TEs) in the metazoan germline is critical for genome integrity and is primarily dependent on Piwi proteins and associated RNAs, which exert their function through both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Here, we report that the evolutionarily conserved Pelo (Dom34)-Hbs1 mRNA surveillance complex is required for transposon silencing in the Drosophila germline. In pelo mutant gonads, mRNAs and proteins of some selective TEs are up-regulated. Pelo is not required for piRNA biogenesis, and our studies suggest that Pelo may function at the translational level to silence TEs: This function requires interaction with Hbs1, and overexpression of RpS30a partially reverts TE-silencing defects in pelo mutants. Interestingly, TE silencing and spermatogenesis defects in pelo mutants can also effectively be rescued by expressing the mammalian ortholog of Pelo. We propose that the Pelo-Hbs1 surveillance complex provides another level of defense against the expression of TEs in the germline of Drosophila and possibly all metazoa.