The genome expression pattern is strongly modified during the heat shock response (HSR) to form an adaptive state. This may be partly achieved by modulating microRNA levels that control the expression of a great number of genes that are embedded within the gene circuitry. Here, we investigated the cross-talk between two highly conserved and universal house-keeping systems, the HSR and microRNA machinery, in Drosophila melanogaster We demonstrated that pronounced interstrain differences in the microRNA levels are alleviated after heat shock (HS) to form a uniform microRNA pattern. However, individual strains exhibit different patterns of microRNA expression during the course of recovery. Importantly, HS-regulated microRNAs may target functionally similar HS-responsive genes involved in the HSR. Despite the observed general downregulation of primary microRNA precursor expression as well as core microRNA pathway genes after HS, the levels of many mature microRNAs are upregulated. This indicates that the regulation of miRNA expression after HS occurs at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. It was also shown that deletion of all hsp70 genes had no significant effect on microRNA biogenesis but might influence the dynamics of microRNA expression during the HSR.