Proper regulation of sleep-wake behavior and feeding is essential for organismal health and survival. While previous studies have isolated discrete neural loci and substrates important for either sleep or feeding, how the brain is organized to coordinate both processes with respect to one another remains poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that the Drosophila Neuropeptide F (NPF) network forms a critical component of both adult sleep and feeding regulation. Activation of NPF signaling in the brain promotes wakefulness and adult feeding, likely through its cognate receptor NPFR. Flies carrying a loss-of-function NPF allele do not suppress sleep following prolonged starvation conditions, suggesting that NPF acts as a hunger signal to keep the animal awake. NPF-expressing cells, specifically those expressing the circadian photoreceptor cryptochrome, are largely responsible for changes to sleep behavior caused by NPF neuron activation, but not feeding, demonstrating that different NPF neurons separately drive wakefulness and hunger.