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Wu, J.K., Tai, C.Y., Feng, K.L., Chen, S.L., Chen, C.C., Chiang, A.S. (2017). Long-term memory requires sequential protein synthesis in three subsets of mushroom body output neurons in Drosophila.  Sci. Rep. 7(1): 7112.
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Creating long-term memory (LTM) requires new protein synthesis to stabilize learning-induced synaptic changes in the brain. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, aversive olfactory learning forms several phases of labile memory to associate an odor with coincident punishment in the mushroom body (MB). It remains unclear how the brain consolidates early labile memory into LTM. Here, we survey 183 Gal4 lines containing almost all 21 distinct types of MB output neurons (MBONs) and show that sequential synthesis of learning-induced proteins occurs at three types of MBONs. Downregulation of oo18 RNA-binding proteins (ORBs) in any of these MBONs impaired LTM. And, neurotransmission outputs from these MBONs are all required during LTM retrieval. Together, these results suggest an LTM consolidation model in which transient neural activities of early labile memory in the MB are consolidated into stable LTM at a few postsynaptic MBONs through sequential ORB-regulated local protein synthesis.

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PMC5540930 (PMC) (EuropePMC)
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