Upon mating, fruit fly females become refractory to further mating for several days. An ejaculate protein called sex peptide (SP) acts on uterine neurons to trigger this behavioural change, but it is still unclear how the SP signal modifies the mating decision. Here we describe two groups of female-specific local interneurons that are important for this process-the ventral abdominal lateral (vAL) and ventral abdominal medial (vAM) interneurons. Both vAL and vAM express myoinhibitory peptide (Mip)-GAL4. vAL is positive for Mip neuropeptides and the sex-determining transcriptional factor doublesex. Silencing the Mip neurons in females induces active rejection of male courtship attempts, whereas activation of the Mip neurons makes even mated females receptive to re-mating. vAL and vAM are located in the abdominal ganglion (AG) where they relay the SP signal to other AG neurons that project to the brain. Mip neuropeptides appear to promote mating receptivity both in virgins and mated females, although it is dispensable for normal mating in virgin females.