Recent studies have reported intrinsic metabolic reprogramming in Pkd1 knock-out cells, implicating dysregulated cellular metabolism in the pathogenesis of polycystic kidney disease. However, the exact nature of the metabolic changes and their underlying cause remains controversial. We show herein that Pkd1 k o /ko renal epithelial cells have impaired fatty acid utilization, abnormal mitochondrial morphology and function, and that mitochondria in kidneys of ADPKD patients have morphological alterations. We further show that a C-terminal cleavage product of polycystin-1 (CTT) translocates to the mitochondria matrix and that expression of CTT in Pkd1 ko/ko cells rescues some of the mitochondrial phenotypes. Using Drosophila to model in vivo effects, we find that transgenic expression of mouse CTT results in decreased viability and exercise endurance but increased CO2 production, consistent with altered mitochondrial function. Our results suggest that PC1 may play a direct role in regulating mitochondrial function and cellular metabolism and provide a framework to understand how impaired mitochondrial function could be linked to the regulation of tubular diameter in both physiological and pathological conditions.