The ADCK proteins are predicted mitochondrial kinases. Most studies of these proteins have focused on the Abc1/Coq8 subfamily, which contributes to Coenzyme Q biosynthesis. In contrast, little is known about ADCK1 despite its evolutionary conservation in yeast, Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals. We show that Drosophila ADCK1 mutants die as second instar larvae with double mouth hooks and tracheal breaks. Tissue-specific genetic rescue and RNAi studies show that ADCK1 is necessary and sufficient in the trachea for larval viability. In addition, tracheal-rescued ADCK1 mutant adults have reduced lifespan, are developmentally delayed, have reduced body size, and normal levels of basic metabolites. The larval lethality and double mouth hooks seen in ADCK1 mutants are often associated with reduced levels of the steroid hormone ecdysone, suggesting that this gene could contribute to controlling ecdysone levels or bioavailability. Similarly, the tracheal defects in these animals could arise from defects in intracellular lipid trafficking. These studies of ADCK1 provide a new context to define the physiological functions of this poorly understood member of the ADCK family of predicted mitochondrial proteins.