Elucidating cell lineages provides crucial understanding of development. Recently developed sequencing-based techniques enhance the scale of lineage tracing but eliminate the spatial information offered by conventional approaches. Multi-spectral labeling techniques, such as Brainbow, have the potential to identify lineage-related cells in situ. Here, we report nuclear Bitbow (nBitbow), a "digital" version of Brainbow that greatly expands the color diversity for scoring cells, and a suite of statistical methods for quantifying the lineage relationship of any two cells. Applying these tools to the Drosophila peripheral nervous system (PNS), we determined lineage relationship between all neuronal pairs. This study demonstrates nBitbow as an efficient tool for in situ lineage mapping, and the complete lineage relationship among larval PNS neurons opens new possibilities for studying how neurons gain specific features and circuit connectivity.