Mitochondrial carriers are a family of structurally related proteins responsible for the exchange of metabolites, cofactors and nucleotides between the cytoplasm and mitochondrial matrix. The in silico analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster genome has highlighted the presence of 48 genes encoding putative mitochondrial carriers, but only 20 have been functionally characterized. Despite most Drosophila mitochondrial carrier genes having human homologs and sharing with them 50% or higher sequence identity, D. melanogaster genes display peculiar differences from their human counterparts: (1) in the fruit fly, many genes encode more transcript isoforms or are duplicated, resulting in the presence of numerous subfamilies in the genome; (2) the expression of the energy-producing genes in D. melanogaster is coordinated from a motif known as Nuclear Respiratory Gene (NRG), a palindromic 8-bp sequence; (3) fruit-fly duplicated genes encoding mitochondrial carriers show a testis-biased expression pattern, probably in order to keep a duplicate copy in the genome. Here, we review the main features, biological activities and role in the metabolism of the D. melanogaster mitochondrial carriers characterized to date, highlighting similarities and differences with their human counterparts. Such knowledge is very important for obtaining an integrated view of mitochondrial function in D. melanogaster metabolism.