Understanding the effects of microgravity on human organs is crucial to exploration of low-earth orbit, the moon, and beyond. Drosophila can be sent to space in large numbers to examine the effects of microgravity on heart structure and function, which is fundamentally conserved from flies to humans. Flies reared in microgravity exhibit cardiac constriction with myofibrillar remodeling and diminished output. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in isolated hearts revealed reduced expression of sarcomeric/extracellular matrix (ECM) genes and dramatically increased proteasomal gene expression, consistent with the observed compromised, smaller hearts and suggesting abnormal proteostasis. This was examined further on a second flight in which we found dramatically elevated proteasome aggregates co-localizing with increased amyloid and polyQ deposits. Remarkably, in long-QT causing sei/hERG mutants, proteasomal gene expression at 1g, although less than the wild-type expression, was nevertheless increased in microgravity. Therefore, cardiac remodeling and proteostatic stress may be a fundamental response of heart muscle to microgravity.