Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of upper and lower motoneurons. Most ALS cases are sporadic but approximately 10% of ALS cases are due to inherited mutations in identified genes. ALS-causing mutations were identified in over 30 genes with superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72), fused in sarcoma (FUS), and TAR DNA-binding protein (TARDBP, encoding TDP-43) being the most frequent. In the last few decades, Drosophila melanogaster emerged as a versatile model for studying neurodegenerative diseases, including ALS. In this review, we describe the different Drosophila ALS models that have been successfully used to decipher the cellular and molecular pathways associated with SOD1, C9orf72, FUS, and TDP-43. The study of the known fruit fly orthologs of these ALS-related genes yielded significant insights into cellular mechanisms and physiological functions. Moreover, genetic screening in tissue-specific gain-of-function mutants that mimic ALS-associated phenotypes identified disease-modifying genes. Here, we propose a comprehensive review on the Drosophila research focused on four ALS-linked genes that has revealed novel pathogenic mechanisms and identified potential therapeutic targets for future therapy.