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General Information
D. melanogaster
Feature type
FlyBase ID
Sequences and Components
Complete element (bp)


2100 (approximately)

Terminal repeat (bp)

21 or 23

Component genes
Sequence Accessions
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
Sequence Ontology (SO)
Insertions and Copy Number
Copy number and comments

44 in euchromatin of Release 3 genome annotation, of which 5 are full length.

Target Site Duplication
Curated drosophilid orthologs

The distribution of structural variation within the pogo elements analysed shows that internal deletions predominate. Insertion site data suggest that pogo elements are more likely to insert in regions of lower than average denaturation temperatures.

The ~2.1 kb pogo elements are the largest in the genome, and can be regarded as being complete. Others are between 1.1kb and 1.5 kb having different internal deletions. There are also many tiny pogo elements around 0.2 kb.

Comparison of integrase/transposase domains to new elements containing the DDE signature.

Strains collected from around the world and from different eras contain multiple copies of a 2.1kb pogo element and multiple copies of several size classes between 1.0kb and 1.8kb. Presence and intensity of different classes of elements suggests current or recent mobility. pogo may be an 'middle-aged' element in the genome having entered the species since its divergence from its sibling species but long before the P-elements and hobos.

A number of pogo elements have been cloned and sequenced. These elements belong to the same class as the P-elements and hobos of D.melanogaster. The longest pogo elements are approximately 2.1kb, although strains typically also contain smaller elements derived from the larger element by internal deletion. pogo elements either insert at the dinucleotide TA and have perfect 21bp terminal inverse repeats, or have 22bp inverse repeats and produce no duplication upon insertion. Analysis of their distribution and occupancy of insertion sites suggests that pogo elements may be less mobile than P-elements or hobos. Homologous sequences were not detected in D.simulans, D.mauritiana, D.yakuba, D.erecta or D.pseudoobscura.pseudoobscura, suggesting that pogo elements may be restricted to D.melanogaster.

First copy to be analyzed was a 190 base pair element within the w1 insertion on chromosomes carrying the white-eosin mutation. Other copies have been cloned, the longest of which is 1.1 kb. Southern transfer experiments suggest that the genome contains elements of 2.2 kb. Each element has either a 23 base pair terminal inverted repeat and no target site duplication or a 21 base pair inverted repeat flanked by duplication of the sequence TA. The map and terminal sequences in Lindsley, Zimm, 1992: 1106 are from O'Hare.

Other Information
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 3 )
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (11)
References (64)