Repair of damaged DNA is required for the viability of all organisms. Studies in Drosophila melanogaster, driven by the power of genetic screens, pioneered the discovery and characterization of many genes and pathways involved in DNA repair in animals. However, fewer than half of the alleles identified in these screens have been mapped to a specific gene, leaving a potential for new discoveries in this field. Here we show that the previously uncharacterized mutagen sensitive gene mus302 codes for the Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of the E3 ubiquitin ligase RING finger and WD domain protein 3 (RFWD3). In human cells, RFWD3 promotes ubiquitylation of RPA and RAD51 to facilitate repair of collapsed replication forks and double-strand breaks through homologous recombination. Despite the high similarity in sequence to the human ortholog, our evidence fails to support a role for Mus302 in the repair of these types of damage. Last, we observe that the N-terminal third of RFWD3 is only found in mammals, but not in other vertebrates or invertebrates. We propose that the new N-terminal sequence accounts for the acquisition of a new biological function in mammals that explains the functional differences between the human and the fly orthologs, and that Drosophila Mus302 may retain the ancestral function of the protein.