In hh21 mutant embryos, the number of cluster I slou expressing muscle founder cells is reduced to about 3/4 of wild-type. The cluster II slou expressing muscle founder cells ...
No posterior spiracles are present in hh21 larvae.
No significant abnormalities in the corpus cardiacum are detected in late stage mutant embryos.
Mutant animals exhibit separated nerve roots and dendritic fields in the embryonic motor system, as in wild type.
21% of hh21 heterozygotes have increased numbers of S phase larval neuroblasts compared to wild-type.
Mutant embryos have a strong reduction of the head midline epidermis, a reduction in the size of the brain and optic lobe and the total absence of the larval and adult eye primordium.
There are no drastic changes in anal pad development in mutant embryos. The hindgut is shorter than in wild-type embryos (about 70% of the wild-type length at stage 16). The rectum is initially almost normal in size at early stage 12, but begins to degenerate after early stage 13 and is scarcely recognisable at stage 16. The small intestine is also reduced. Growth of the large intestine (which occurs in wild-type embryos after stage 12) is suppressed.
Homozygous embryos lack naked cuticle and develop a lawn of randomly arrayed denticles.
Fat body is slightly reduced.
Homozygous embryos lack naked cuticle between the abdominal denticle belts, these regions are instead covered in denticles.
Posterior naked cuticle is eliminated from every segment.
Larvae exhibit the cardiac arrest phenotype, foregut cells are clustered at the top of the proventriculus and cannot migrate inside to form the cardiac valve. Pupae and adult therefore have no cardiac valve and also the outer wall of the proventriculus is narrow and hollow.
Ventral cuticle is covered in denticles.
Embryos are reduced in size and exhibit an absence of naked cuticle in each segment. Double mutant embryos with ptcG12 are larger and exhibit a phenotype similar to ptc.
Strong phenotype. Mutant embryos show no obvious segmentation, and are 40% the length of wild type; denticles form a lawn arranged in a number of whorls on the ventral surface as a result of loss of naked cuticle.