The Drosophila proneural genes specify neuronal determination among cells within the ectoderm. Here we address the question of whether proneural genes also affect the specification of glia, the most abundant cell type in the nervous system. We provide evidence that the proneural gene daughterless is essential for the formation of two major classes of PNS glia. In contrast, the proneural genes in the achaete-scute complex have no detectable effect on the specification and differentiation of these PNS glia and certain CNS glia. We also show that, as with neuronal development, glial determination is restricted by the neurogenic genes neuralized, Delta, and the genes of the Enhancer of split complex. Finally, we demonstrate that prospero, a gene involved in neuronal differentiation, also affects glial development. These results demonstrate extensive overlap in the genetic control of glial and neuronal development.