The neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) tumor suppressor protein is thought to restrict cell proliferation by functioning as a Ras-specific guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein. However, Drosophila homozygous for null mutations of an NF1 homolog showed no obvious signs of perturbed Ras1-mediated signaling. Loss of NF1 resulted in a reduction in size of larvae, pupae, and adults. This size defect was not modified by manipulating Ras1 signaling but was restored by expression of activated adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Thus, NF1 and PKA appear to interact in a pathway that controls the overall growth of Drosophila.