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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Pak11
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0098350
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
dpak11
Key Links
Mutagen
    Nature of the Allele
    Mutagen
    Mutations Mapped to the Genome
     
    Type
    Location
    Additional Notes
    References
    Nucleotide change:

    C6356947T

    Amino acid change:

    Q227term | Pak-PA; Q227term | Pak-PB; Q227term | Pak-PC; Q227term | Pak-PE; Q227term | Pak-PF; Q227term | Pak-PG; Q227term | Pak-PH; Q227term | Pak-PI; Q227term | Pak-PJ

    Reported amino acid change:

    Q227term

    Comment:

    Site of nucleotide substitution in mutant inferred by FlyBase based on reported amino acid change.

    Associated Sequence Data
    DNA sequence
    Protein sequence
     
     
    Progenitor genotype
    Cytology
    Nature of the lesion
    Statement
    Reference

    Mutation results in a truncated protein of approximately 46kD.

    Amino acid replacement: Q227term.

    Expression Data
    Reporter Expression
    Additional Information
    Statement
    Reference
     
    Marker for
    Reflects expression of
    Reporter construct used in assay
    Human Disease Associations
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease-implicated variant(s)
     
    Phenotypic Data
    Phenotypic Class
    Phenotype Manifest In
    Detailed Description
    Statement
    Reference

    Mutant third instar neuromuscular junctions show highly reduced subsynaptic reticulum.

    In Pak11/Pak6 adults the antennal lobes are small and mis-shapen compared to wild-type, and have amorphous neuropil. Antennal glomeruli DM2 and DM3 are severely mis-shapen or split into smaller structures that are scattered randomly around the antennal lobe. The integrity and position of VA11m is unaffected, but it is enlarged and extends into the domains of surrounding glomeruli, in most cases completely engulfing the adjacent VA1d. Projection neurons and glial cells differentiate normally in antennal lobes of the mutants, but dendritic arborization of the projection neurons is more diffuse than in wild-type, and the number of glial processes is somewhat reduced. The development of neurons within the antennae appears normal.

    Motor axons in a Pak6/Pak11 mutant background exhibit guidance defects: segmental nerve (SN)b/d and SNa motor axons often (21 and 22%, respectively) overextend and bypass their target muscles.

    The ultrastructure of synapses in Pak11/Pak4 mutant larvae is indistinguishable from wild type. The subsynaptic reticulum at the NMJ between muscles 6 and 7 is reduced in size in both Pak11/Pak6 and Pak11/Pak7 third instar larvae compared to wild type.

    In Pak6/Pak11 embryos, either the entire Bolwig's Nerve, or a subset of its axons project to ectopic positions. These defects have over a 90% penetrance.

    Adult escapers are uncoordinated and have crumpled wings but are otherwise wild type in appearance. R cell axons extend into the brain normally in Pak6/Pak11 flies. However these fibres do not spread evenly within the lamina and medulla. As a result some regions are hyperinnervated while others lack innervation. In the medulla neuropil, R cell axons fail to find their proper targets but instead terminate as abnormally thick, blunt ended fascicles. A small fraction of the R2-R5 neurons project through the lamina and into the medulla, indicating a modest disruption in ganglion target specificity. Some R1 to R6 axons fail to stop in the lamina, resulting in gaps in the lamina plexus. In addition, R cell axons form abnormally thick bundles between the lamina and medulla. Pak6/Pak11 mutant ommatidia are largely indistinguishable from wild-type, of 898 ommatidia counted in four Pak mutant eyes, only nine ommatidia lacked a single R cell. R cell morphology is normal, as is lamina neuron and glial cell differentiation.

    External Data
    Interactions
    Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
    Phenotypic Class
    Enhancer of
    Statement
    Reference

    Pak11 is an enhancer of abnormal neuroanatomy phenotype of robo15, sli1

    Suppressor of
    NOT Suppressor of
    Statement
    Reference
    Phenotype Manifest In
    Enhancer of
    Statement
    Reference
    Suppressor of
    NOT Suppressor of
    Other
    Additional Comments
    Genetic Interactions
    Statement
    Reference

    Scer\GAL4Mef2.PR-mediated expression of SyndScer\UAS.cKa can induce postsynaptic membrane expansions in Pak11 mutants that show highly reduced subsynaptic reticulum.

    Heterozygous Pak11 enhances the frequency of central nervous system axon defects seen in sli1, robo5 mutants. An average of 5.8 defects are seen per animal. 53% of segments (calculated as number of defects/segments) show defects.

    The axon guidance defects seen in Cdc42V12.Scer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC; Scer\GAL4elav.PLu embryos are unaffected by the background Pak6/Pak11.

    Xenogenetic Interactions
    Statement
    Reference
    Complementation and Rescue Data
    Rescued by
    Partially rescued by
    Not rescued by
    Comments

    Scer\GAL4SG18.1; PakScer\UAS.T:Hsap\MYC (gives expression in olfactory neurons, but not in the brain) rescues the development of most glomeruli in Pak11/Pak6 flies.

    Images (0)
    Mutant
    Wild-type
    Stocks (1)
    Notes on Origin
    Discoverer
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (6)
    References (18)