To investigate the potential importance of gene duplication in D. melanogaster accessory gland protein (Acp) gene evolution we carried out a computational analysis comparing annotated D. melanogaster Acp genes to the entire D. melanogaster genome. We found that two known Acp genes are actually members of small multigene families. Polymorphism and divergence data from these duplicated genes suggest that in at least four cases, protein divergence between D. melanogaster and D. simulans is a result of directional selection. One putative Acp revealed by our computational analysis shows evidence of a recent selective sweep in a non-African population (but not in an African population). These data support the idea that selection on reproduction-related genes may drive divergence of populations within species, and strengthen the conclusion that Acps may often be under directional selection in Drosophila.