Embryonic patterning in Drosophila is regulated by maternal factors. Many such factors become localized as mRNAs within the oocyte during oogenesis and are translated in a spatio-temporally regulated manner. These processes are controlled by trans-acting proteins, which bind to the target RNAs to form a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex. We report that a DEAD-box protein, Me31B, forms a cytoplasmic RNP complex with oocyte-localizing RNAs and Exuperantia, a protein involved in RNA localization. During early oogenesis, loss of Me31B causes premature translation of oocyte-localizing RNAs within nurse cells, without affecting their transport to the oocyte. These results suggest that Me31B mediates translational silencing of RNAs during their transport to the oocyte. Our data provide evidence that RNA transport and translational control are linked through the assembly of RNP complex.