a noncanonical RNA-binding protein with EXO-SAM-like domain architecture that interacts with its target RNA as a homodimer a core component of a large protein complex involved in localizing mRNAs both within nurse cells and the developing oocyte
Gene model reviewed during 5.51
Component of the osk RNP complex, which is composed of at least exuperantia (exu), ypsilon schachtel (yps), aret (bruno), cup, and the mRNA of osk (PubMed:10662770). In the sponge body, forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) containing at least me31B, exu, yps and the mRNA of osk; interactions with exu and yps are RNA dependent (PubMed:11546740).
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\exu using the Feature Mapper tool.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\exu in GBrowse 2
Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for identity of: exu CG8994
exu protein is highly enriched in the sponge bodies, subcellular structures in nurse cells. Neither the accumulation of, or level of exu protein is dependent on the amount of bcd mRNA present in the ovaries. Results propose that sponge bodies are structures that, by assembly and transport of included molecules or associated structures, are involved in localisation of mRNAs in oocytes.
Deletions within the male-specific 3'-UTR lead to male sterility associated with reduced steady-state levels of the mutant mRNA in vivo.
tra2 is required in male germ cells for efficient male-specific processing of exu RNA. In the absence of tra2 males produce a new exu mRNA which is processed at its 3' end so that it contains sequences normally specific to the female 3' untranslated region. The male and female mRNAs differ in the untranslated regions so the predicted polypeptide is the same.
Drug studies indicate that the Avic\GFP exu fusion protein is co-localised with microtubules during oogenesis. These particles are RNP complexes which transport and target bcd mRNA to the oocyte anterior cortex.
In vitro binding and precipitation assays show that bacterially expressed exu protein binds to tubulin. Particles seen with the exu Avic\GFP fusion protein are RNP complexes that bind bcd mRNA, the particles associate with microtubules via exu in nurse cells and is transported along the microtubules and targetted to the anterior cortex of the oocyte.
bcd mRNA localization requires the function of at least three genes, the exu gene acts earliest in the pathway. exu acts in initiating bcd mRNA localization but does not play a persistant role in that process.
exu is not required for the maintenance of bcd mRNA localization during late stages of oogenesis or early embryogenesis. It is required for the establishment of bcd mRNA localization in the developing oocyte.
exu mutants exhibit weak anterior deletions, and weak segmentation defects in the posterior abdomen.
Mature follicles are immunologically stained for asymmetric distribution of ecdysteroid-related antigen. During late oogenesis localisation of the antigen changes dramatically suggesting the antigen plays a role in early embryogenesis and, perhaps, in pattern formation.
Mutations in exu result in a maternal effect phenotype with defects during the early stages of gastrulation and defects in the anteroposterior axis.