Insects use taste to evaluate food, hosts, and mates. Drosophila has many "orphan" taste neurons that express no known taste receptors. The Ionotropic Receptor (IR) superfamily is best known for its role in olfaction, but virtually nothing is known about a clade of ∼35 members, the IR20a clade. Here, a comprehensive analysis of this clade reveals expression in all taste organs of the fly. Some members are expressed in orphan taste neurons, whereas others are coexpressed with bitter- or sugar-sensing Gustatory receptor (Gr) genes. Analysis of the closely related IR52c and IR52d genes reveals signatures of adaptive evolution, roles in male mating behavior, and sexually dimorphic expression in neurons of the male foreleg, which contacts females during courtship. These neurons are activated by conspecific females and contact a neural circuit for sexual behavior. Together, these results greatly expand the repertoire of candidate taste and pheromone receptors in the fly.