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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\fru3
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0028196
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Key Links
Allele class
Nature of the Allele
Allele class
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference

Insertion lies between the P1 promoter and the common coding region.

Insertion of a P{PZ} element.

Insertion components
P{PZ}fru3
Product class / Tool use(s)
Encoded product / tool
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease-implicated variant(s)
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

The size distribution of regenerated adult wings in fru3 heterozygous mutants that were subjected to ablation of imaginal wing disc tissue during the larval stage, is significantly shifted towards bigger wing size compared to similarly treated controls.

fru3/Df(3R)Exel6179 males are semi-sterile and fail to court.

fru3 mutant males display active intermale courtship. When subjected to daily ethanol exposure, the courtship level of fru3 males is decreased on the first exposure and then remains unchanged on subsequent exposure. the intermale courtship level of fru3 males is significantly lower than that of CS control males on the third exposure.

The Muscle of Lawrence fails to differentiate in 90% of fru3 homozygous mutants, with the remaining 10% exhibiting only a vestigial muscle of Lawrence.

Flies transheterozygous for fruΔC and fru3 exhibit approximately 33% fertility compared to wild-type. They do not experience reduced viability. These flies also exhibit reduced courting of females while displaying higher levels of intermale courtship and chaining. The muscle of Lawrence fails to differentiate in 90% of cases, with the remaining 10% exhibiting only a vestigial muscle of Lawrence.

fruΔC/fru3 transheterozygotes exhibit a reduced number of male serotonergic neurons and improper patterning. The dorsal serotonergic abdominal giant neurons (dSAbg) exhibits approximately 18%, and the ventral serotonergic abdominal giant neurons (vSAbg) approximately 6% of the normal complement of serotonergic neurons. At least one or the other of these clusters is absent in a significant portion of these males; the vSAbg is undetectable in approximately 70%, whereas approximately 22% exhibit no dSAbg. In animals lacking the vSAbg, the remaining dSAbg neurons innervate the vas deferens, accessory glands, and ejaculatory duct. Similarly, in animals with no dSAbg, the same target organs are innervated by neurons of the vSAbg. In animals with only one cluster, while the innervation of the vas deferens is wild-type in pattern, the innervations are less dense. Similar observations are found for the accessory glands and ejaculatory duct. Unlike wild-type males, 90% of accessory glands are not fully innervated and a further 5% have no innervation. This phenotype is repeated with the vas deferens. These males experience a 8.5% decrease in fru[M]-labelled neurons compared to wild-type.

During a 6hr observation, fruΔC/fru3 males do not mate, whereas approximately 50% of fruΔC/fru3 males expressing fruMC.Scer\UAS.cSa do. These males are slower to initiate mating, although the duration of copulation is similar to that of wild-type males. A small number of control flies (i.e. fruMC.Scer\UAS.cSa/+ ; fruΔC/fru3) manage to mate within the same time as the 'rescued' males, probably due to 'leakage' of the transgene, although mating durations are still significantly longer than those of wild-type males.

fru3/fru4-40 males exhibit very little courtship behaviour towards females and show a small but significant increase in courtship of other males compared to wild-type. Unlike wild-type males, these mutant males form male mating chains.

The male-female courtship index and fertility of fruGAL4/fru3 males is significantly reduced compared to wild-type. These males court single wild-type males and form chains with males of their own genotype.

23% of fru0-1/fru3 males are fertile. Male-female courtship as measured by courtship index (CI) or wing extension index (WEI) is almost completely abolished in fru3/fruw9, fru3/Df(3R)fruw24, fru3/fruw27 or fru3/fru4-40 males. fru3/fru4-40 males show significant male-male courtship as measured by CI. fru3/fruw9, fru3/fruw12, fru3/Df(3R)fruw24 or fru3/fru4-40 males show substantial chaining. fru3/Df(3R)fruw24, fru3/fruw27 and fru3/fru4-40 males do not produce a courtship song even though they show a small amount of wing extension.

Expression of 5-HT in serotonergic-abdominal ganglion neurons in adult males is absent.

fru1/fru3 males mated individually to a single virgin female show vigorous courtship behaviour, comparable to that of wild-type males. High levels of abdominal bending are seen in the males that show courtship behaviour. However, the proportion of males that mate is reduced compared to wild type; 30% of the transheterozygous males court but do not mate. The fertility of the males (as assayed by the ability of the mated females to produce progeny) is reduced compared to wild-type males. The transheterozygous males show longer than normal mating-initiation latencies compared to heterozygous controls. Mating duration is also longer than normal and shows a far more scattered distribution than that of wild-type males.

The number of progeny (number of resulting pupae) obtained from a fertile mating between a fru1/fru3 male and a wild-type female are not slightly but significantly fewer compared with wild type.

An appreciable fraction of matings by fru1/fru3 males lead to subnormal quantities of sperm being transferred to the female.

Homozygous males show high levels of head-to-head interactions compared to wild-type males. Most of these would-be aggressive actions involve bringing their heads together but not escalating the interactions into the rising-up and boxing motions that are displayed by wild-type males. The level of head-to-head interactions shows a temporal dependency; when males are grouped together on the day they eclose they do not show significantly higher than normal head-to-head interactions, but the frequency of head-to-head interactions shows a marked increase beginning on day 2 and peaking on days 4-5. Mutant males aged individually for 5-7 days and then grouped together show low levels of head-to-head interactions 1 day after being grouped together, but show an increase in the frequency of head-to-head interactions by days 4-5. These flies (which were aged individually) show lower levels of head-to-head interactions compared to mutant males that have been aged for essentially the same number of days, but in the presence of other males since eclosion, indicating a social component in the phenotype. Mutant males show some chaining behaviour. Chaining also show temporal dependence, with the frequency of chaining showing a marked increase beginning on day 2 and peaking on days 4-5.

Males are less stimulated to court females than fru1 or fru0-1 and display less chaining behaviour than fru1 males. Some males that exhibit courtship do exhibit tapping behaviour (tapping of the female with the forelegs). No courtship song pulse is generated, even though they perform rare and unsustained wing extensions. The anomalous wing usage exhibited is not due to a general thoracic etiology, such as a defect in neuromuscular morphology or physiology. Homozygous and transheterozygous males with fru4 exhibit complete behavioural sterility, failure to attempt copulation. Males, when presented with both sexes simultaneously, will show a courtship bias toward males. Chaining behaviour exhibited by males is displayed mostly on the food surface. Courtship song is not required for, nor is particularly correlated with, chain formation. The behaviour of fru3/fru4 males is very similar to that of either homozygote. Males lack the Muscle of Lawrence (MOL). Subnormal levels of courtship are not related to any drop in activity or viability. Mutant females are courted by wild-type males at normal levels.

Males lack the muscle of Lawrence.

Males court indiscriminately, fail to copulate and have muscle of Lawrence defects. Males show very little wing extension and the wing displays generate no song pulse signals (courtship specific as flight is normal). fru3/fruw12 males barely court at all but show normal locomotor activity. Mutant combination shows some male-male chaining. Early and late steps of courtship are disrupted.

In fru3 homozygotes the number of adult muscle nuclei per fibre is greater than that for other fru- mutants but there are fewer nuclei in muscle of Lawrence (MOL)-position fibres than medial fibres or wild-type male MOL fibres. The number of myoblasts in unaffected.

Males court males and females but fail to mate. Male specific abdominal muscle is reduced.

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference
Suppressed by
Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

fru[+]/fru3 is an enhancer of visible | dominant phenotype of gcmPyx

Phenotype Manifest In
Suppressed by
Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

fru[+]/fru3 is an enhancer of chaeta | increased number phenotype of gcmPyx

Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

The addition of to1/to1 to fru3/+ leads to a significant reduction in courtship index. Although reduced courtship is not abolished, Mutant males are capable of all stages of courtship, but perform less frequently. This reduction is not caused by a reduction in general activity. The addition of the fru carrying Tp(3;Y)A81 or Tp(3;Y)L58 rescues this enhancement phenotype.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

The semi-sterility of fruAJ96u3/Df(3R)Exel6179 mutants is rescued by combination with either Dana\fru+t20H8 or Dper\fru+t36N18.

Expression of Agam\fruMC.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4fru.16, in a fru3/fruΔC background (in which fru[MA] and fru[MB], but not the fru[MC] transcript are present) increases the percentage of fertile males from 33 to 65% of wild-type levels.

Expression of Agam\fruMC.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4fru.16, in a fru3/fruΔC background (in which fru[MA] and fru[MB], but not the fru[MC] transcript are present) rescues the formation of the muscle of Lawrence in the male.

Expression of Agam\fruMC.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4fru.16 in fruΔC/fru3 mutants induces differentiation of neurons in both male serotonergic abdominal giant neuron clusters.

Expression of Agam\fruMC.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4fru.16 is sufficient to suppress the Muscle of Lawrence(MOL)-less phenotype of fru3 mutant males and to induce formation of a MOL-like muscle in females.

Complementation and Rescue Data
Comments

Expression of fruMA.Scer\UAS.cSa, fruMB.Scer\UAS.cSa, or fruMC.Scer\UAS.cSa, under the control of Scer\GAL4fru.16 in a fru3/fru3 background does not restore male fertility. However, expression of fruMC.Scer\UAS.cSa in a fru3/fruΔC background (in which fru[MA] and fru[MB], but not the fru[MC] transcript are present) increases the percentage of fertile males from 33 to 78% of wild-type levels. Extension of mating length beyond normal duration in fru3/fru3 mutants is rescued by expression of fruMC.Scer\UAS.cSa via Scer\GAL4fru.16.

Expression of fruMA.Scer\UAS.cSa or fruMB.Scer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4fru.16 fails to rescue fertility levels in fru3/fruΔC mutants.

Expression of fruMC.Scer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4fru.16 in fru3 homozygotes and fru3/fruΔC transheterozygotes rescues the formation of the muscle of Lawrence in the male and induces formation of muscle of Lawrence-like features and neuromuscular junctions in the female. This also rescues formation of the dorsal serotonergic abdominal giant neuron cluster. In some cases, the ventral serotonergic abdominal giant neuron cluster is also rescued.

Expression of either fruMA.Scer\UAS.cSa or fruMB.Scer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4fru.16, in fru3 homozygotes and fru3/fruΔC transheterozygotes fails to rescue the formation of the muscle of Lawrence in the male and fails to induce formation of muscle of Lawrence-like features and neuromuscular junctions in the female.

Expression of fruMA.Scer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4fru.16 does not significantly rescue differentiation of the male serotonergic neurons in fruΔC/fru3 mutants.

Expression of fruMB.Scer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4fru.16 in fruΔC/fru3 mutants induces differentiation of neurons in the dorsal serotonergic abdominal giant neurons, with up to five neurons (half the wild-type number) developing per animal. Rescue in the ventral serotonergic abdominal giant neurons is not observed.

Extension of mating length beyond normal duration in fruΔC/fru3 males is rescued by targeted expression of fruMC.Scer\UAS.cSa via Scer\GAL4fru.16.

Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (1)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer

A. Spradling.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (5)
References (36)