Expression of SpargelScer\UAS.cRa under the control of Scer\GAL4da.G32 is sufficient to increase mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetic efficiency.
Expression of SpargelScer\UAS.cRa under the control of Scer\GAL4da.G32 does not produce any gross changes in body size or obvious differences in size, morphology, or cell number of external structures, such as wings.
There is an approximate 20% reduction in triglyceride (TAG) metabolism in flies expressing SpargelScer\UAS.cRa under the control of Scer\GAL4da.G32. In contrast, there is a significant increase in both the amount of stored glycogen and free glucose levels.
Ubiquitous expression of SpargelScer\UAS.cRa under the control of Scer\GAL4da.G32 results in a moderate decrease in adult survival. Similar effects are observed upon expression of SpargelScer\UAS.cRa under the control of Scer\GAL4αTub84B.Switch.PK.
Life-span is significantly increased when SpargelScer\UAS.cRa is induced by Scer\GAL4Switch1.106, which is expressed in abdominal fat and the digestive tract. Induction of SpargelScer\UAS.cRa in the digestive tract (but not the fat body) under the control of Scer\GAL4TIGS-2 results in a 33% increase in mean life span and a 37% increase in maximum life span in female flies, with no major effect in male flies. Notably, adult survival is not improved when SpargelScer\UAS.cRa is induced with the pan-neuronal driver Scer\GAL4elav.Switch.PO.
Expression of SpargelScer\UAS.cRa in the digestive tract under the control of Scer\GAL4esg-05730B generates a 49% increase in mean survival. However, food consumption is not affected.
Scer\GAL4esg-05730B-mediated expression of SpargelScer\UAS.cRa is sufficient to confer a decrease in triglyceride (TAG) levels. Although Scer\GAL4esg-05730B>SpargelScer\UAS.cRa flies display normal glycogen stores, restricted expression of SpargelScer\UAS.cRa is sufficient to produce a moderate increase in free glucose levels. Long-lived Scer\GAL4esg-05730B>SpargelScer\UAS.cRa flies display normal fertility compared to age-matched controls. There is no difference in survival time for Scer\GAL4esg-05730B>SpargelScer\UAS.cRa under conditions of starvation and oxidative stress, compared to wild-type. In addition, these long-lived flies display only a marginal increase in survival under hyperoxia.
The intestines of long-lived Scer\GAL4esg-05730B>SpargelScer\UAS.cRa flies display significant maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential, compared to controls, where membrane potential is progressively lost. Targeted expression of SpargelScer\UAS.cRa in intestinal stem cells and enteroblasts is sufficient to lower the levels of reactive oxygen species throughout the intestinal epithelium in aged flies.
Expression of SpargelScer\UAS.cRa in the digestive tract (under the control of Scer\GAL4bun-GSG5961) results in a significant increase in life span. Adult-only induction of SpargelScer\UAS.cRa (through RU486 addition to the food) results in a significant increase in life span.
An increase in SpargelScer\UAS.cRa expression in the digestive tract under the control of Scer\GAL4esg-05730B results in improved intestinal integrity in aged flies, which is consistent with a delay in disruption of apical-basal polarity in intestines from ageing flies, as revealed by arm staining.