The expression of UbxUAS.cCa under the control of Scer\GAL4pros.PMG induces a significant decrease in the mitotic index of neuroblast daughter cells in the embryonic ventral nerve cord T2 and T3 segments, but not in segment A1, despite of no significant changes in the mitotic index of neuroblasts in the same segments, as compared to controls.
Expression of UbxScer\UAS.cCa under the control of Scer\GAL4GMR24B02 (and thus transforming the 12A ventral nerve cord interneurons in segment T1 toward the T2 fate) leads to variable splitting and branching in T1 12A neurons at rates consistent with those typically seen in the T2 neuromere. However, within the animals ectopically expressing UbxScer\UAS.cCa in all 12A hemilineages, the proportions of neuronal wiring variants (neurite bundle split/unsplit, ectopic branches) differs between T1 and T2 segment neurons in the pupal brain.
Embryos ectopically expressing Scer\GAL4how-24B driven UbxScer\UAS.cCa throughout the mesoderm show an increased number of alary muscle pairs, from the seven normally observed in wild-type, to approximately ten. The supernumerary muscles are usually paired, and in many cases the most anterior pair of muscles is angled acutely to ensure contact with the dorsal vessel.
UbxScer\UAS.cCa expression in all muscle cells at the onset of metamorphosis under the control of Scer\GAL4how-24B (and Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B, placed at the restrictive temperature of 29oC at the onset of metamorphosis) results in tin-expressing myocytes in segments A1-A4 adopting the characteristics of adult segment A5 tin-expressing myocytes, including longitudinal orientation of the muscle fibers. UbxScer\UAS.cCa expression in cardiac myocytes under the control of Scer\GAL4NP5169 (and Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B, blocking Scer\GAL4NP5169, placed at the restrictive temperature of 29oC at the onset of metamorphosis) results in tin-expressing myocytes in segments A1-A4 adopting the characteristics of adult segment A5 tin-expressing myocytes, including longitudinal orientation of the muscle fibers. UbxScer\UAS.cCa expression in all muscle cells at the onset of metamorphosis under the control of Scer\GAL4how-24B (and Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B, placed at the restrictive temperature of 29oC at the onset of metamorphosis) does not affect the differentiation of adult ostiae that develop from A1-A5 svp-expressing cells.
In stage-15 mutant embryos in which UbxScer\UAS.cCa is overexpressed under the control of Scer\GAL4Mef2.PR, lymph-gland progenitors are replaced by pericardial nephrocytes.
In mutant embryos expressing UbxScer\UAS.cCa driven by both Scer\GAL4twi.PG and Scer\GAL4how-24B ectopic cardioblasts are seen and the lymph glands are systematically eliminated and replaced by major pericardial cells. The anterior aorta is also transformed into a posterior aorta and heart tissue.
Expression of UbxScer\UAS.cCa under the control of Scer\GAL4sca-537.4 results in a mutant phenotype in the embryonic tritocerebrum. The phenotype has a penetrance of more than 95%.
Postembryonic neuroblast (pNB) clones in the larval thorax expressing UbxScer\UAS.cCa under the control of Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PL are reduced in size compared to wild-type clones and the clones show loss of the pNB in at least 82% of cases.
Expression of UbxScer\UAS.cCa under the control of Scer\GAL4arm.PS in embryos results in the transformation of segment T3 into A1. The penetrance of this phenotype is 100%.
Expression of UbxScer\UAS.cCa under the control of Scer\GAL4arm.PS in embryos results in the transformation of the identity of third thoracic segment to that of abdominal segment A1.
Expression of UbxScer\UAS.cCa under the control of Scer\GAL4how-24B in embryos does not inhibit heart cell specification in segments A5-A8. There is often an increase in cell size in the dorsal vessel at the A4/A5 boundary, consistent with the formation of an ectopic ostium within the aorta.
94% of flies expressing UbxScer\UAS.cCa under the control of Scer\GAL4ey.PH are wild type. Some animals are seen in which most of the head and one or both eyes of reduced size are present.
Overexpression of UbxScer\UAS.cCa driven by Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1 causes transformation of the antenna towards a thoracic leg. Overexpression of UbxScer\UAS.cCa driven by Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096 causes transformation of the wing towards a haltere in females. Males do not survive larval stages. The phenotype is stronger on the dorsal surface of the wing. Overexpression of UbxScer\UAS.cCa in the ectoderm, driven by Scer\GAL4arm.PS, transforms the denticle belts of thoracic segments towards A1 identity. The development of Keilin's organs and ventral pits are repressed.
When ectopically expressed by a strong Scer\GAL4arm.PS (arm-GAL4), UbxScer\UAS.cCa transforms head and all three thoracic segments into morphological replicas of A1 i.e. generating A1-like denticle belts in these more anterior segments. T1 develops without the characteristic patch of beard denticles. When ectopically expressed by a weak Scer\GAL4arm.PS (arm-GAL4r), UbxScer\UAS.cCa shows no abnormalities at all.
The overall shape of the central nervous system is not perturbed in embryos expressing UbxScer\UAS.cCa under the control of Scer\GAL4Mz1407. The pattern of BrdU incorporation in the central nervous system is abnormal in stage 16/17 embryos; the lateral replicating clusters of the thoracic neuromeres are abolished, and ectopic sites of BrdU incorporation are seen in the ventral region of the thoracic neuromeres.
Scer\GAL4twi.PG induced expression causes ectopic gonadal mesoderm formation in anterior segments of the embryo. Df(3R)Ubx109/Df(3R)P9 embryos lack gonads, ectopic expression of Ubx restores the formation of an encapsulated gonad.