Larvae expressing hthUAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4Hml.Δ do not show changes in lymph gland size or morphology, or in the number of lymph gland hemocytes, as compared to controls.
Expression of hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4Act.PU in somatic clones in the brain optic lobes triggers conversion of p-IPC (proximal inner proliferation centre - gives rise to migratory progenitors) to neuroblasts.
Expression of hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4ct.CtB in embryos results in Malpighian tubule defects, with a variable pattern of loop formation, as compared to wild type. Expression of hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4ct.CtB in third instar larvae results morphological changes in the Malpighian tubules, resulting in difficulty distinguishing between cells of the three segments based on morphology as all cells appear similar, in contrast to wild type tubules.
Clones in the antennal disc expressing hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4Act5C.PU tend to be excluded from A3, with their borders often running along the A2-A3 boundary.
Expression of hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4twi.PG in embryos results in a reduction in the number of cells in the posterior signaling centre (PSC) of the lymph gland, while the size of the lymph gland remains relatively normal.
Expression of hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4ap-md544 results in a reduction in size of the scutum and most the pattern elements of the scutum, such as bristles, are missing. Expression of hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4MS248 results in a reduction of the notum, which affects mostly the scutum territory (the scutum develops very few microchaetae and the dorsocentral macrochaetae are missing).
Scer\GAL4Dll-md23/hthScer\UAS.cPa flies have truncated legs in which all distal segments are missing. In Scer\GAL4bab1.A/hthScer\UAS.cPa flies, the tarsal segments 2-4 are missing or reduced. In Scer\GAL4ap-md544/hthScer\UAS.cPa flies the fourth tarsal segment is missing and in males an ectopic sex comb tooth is present in a distal position. Clones of hth-expressing cells (hthScer\UAS.cPa, Scer\GAL4Ubx.PdC) exhibit poor growth and the majority are eliminated. The effects on growth and survival are more severe in clones in the distal leg than those located proximal to the trochanter. In all the distal leg segments (femur, tibia, metatarsus and tarsi), hthScer\UAS.cPa, Scer\GAL4Ubx.PdC clones differentiate abnormally, often forming vesicles that sort out from the surrounding territory. They are recovered with low frequency and are associated with pattern abnormalities in the wild-type cells close to the clones. The type of bristles that the surviving hth expressing clones differentiate is unlike those of the region in which they are found, suggesting a change in fate. A general feature of these clones is that they appear to induce the formation of proximal structures in a distal position. In many instances, alterations in the distal leg of flies in which clones have been induced are not associated with visible hth-expressing clones, probably reflecting a non-autonomous effect of a clone that has been eliminated. Legs of Scer\GAL4C-765, hthScer\UAS.cPa flies show different degrees of proximalisation which correlate with the temperature; at 17C, there is a slight effect, whereas at 28C, there is extreme proximalisation and often the leg is reduced to a single segment.
Expression of hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1 results in a reduction in antennal segment 3 and a loss of the arista. Proximal leg structures are intact, but distal structures are malformed and the claws are not seen.
The wing pouch does not develop in flies expressing hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4nub-AC-62, Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096 or Scer\GAL4C-765 but proximal structures like the sclerites or costa are normal. The number of alula bristles in flies expressing hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096 is higher than in wild-type flies. Expression of hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4ap-md544 prevents growth of the wing. Expression of hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4bi-omb-Gal4 results in a wing which lacks the distal medial region. Wing discs are reduced in size in larvae expressing hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4bi-omb-Gal4. Expression of hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4C-765 at low temperatures only affects the distal wing, while and higher temperatures both the distal and medial regions are affected, so that in the strongest phenotypes only proximal wing elements remain. Few clones expressing hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4Ubx.PdC can be recovered in the differentiated cuticle. Many of those that can be seen are in the proximal wing. In the margin, they are associated with the loss of marginal elements, while those located closer to the A/P border are associated with the loss of large portions of the middle of the wing blade. A few clones are found near the medial DV wing margin; they only differentiate wing trichomes, but appear to induce local duplications of wing margin elements.
Clones in the leg expressing hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4Act5C.PI invaginate to form a vesicle in a cell-autonomous manner. The orientation of bristles and hairs is reversed near the clone. Clones in the distal part of the leg sometimes form thick socketted bristles without bracts, which are characteristics of the bristles in the proximal part of the leg. Clones expressing hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4Act5C.PI in the distal region of the leg disc are round in shape and have smooth borders.
Clones expressing hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP in the distal region of the leg disc segregate out of the disc epithelium. Vesicles of invaginated tissue are seen in the tarsus and tibia in a high proportion of the legs of adults in which clones have been induced during the larval stages.
When Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1 drives the expression of hthScer\UAS.cPa, the eye disc and adult eye are reduced in size, the arista are always missing, and the third antennal segment is enlarged and often duplicated. The duplicated segment is mirror symmetric as judged from the scar left by the missing arista. The proximal tarsal segment is also often duplicated.
Expression of hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1 completely suppresses eye development. Clones in the eye expressing hthScer\UAS.cPa under the control of Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP disrupt the propogation of the morphogenetic furrow (MF) when they are located anterior to the MF. This disruption is detected in adult flies as a scar running in the anterior-posterior direction. In some cases the eye is split into a dorsal part and a ventral part.